example home work for unit #8Course DevChr I, Dr Oehler
The below essay was written by another course participant.
Social hierarchy - is a chain (ladder)of connections and relationships between people of different social classes, based on their activities and social status in the society.
Social class - it is a community which includes people which were chosen by their place in the international division of labor.
Social status - this place is occupied by the individual in society. Here such qualities as strength, intelligence, morality play the main role.
A simple example of the social hierarchy is the relations between the young and the elderly person. The elderly will be higher than the young, because he is more experienced, and therefore the young will obey him.
Hierarchy in society has its own order and represents a step system. All classes and subclasses are members of different fields of activity. And so the key of relationships between representatives of different spheres is in inequality in spheres of impact, power, competence in particular issues. Sometimes hierarchy of gender takes place. Men always are higher and are sometimes have unjustified privileges. For example: legal privileges (inheritance), moving up the career ladder, the higher salary, etc.
In general, the whole of society is based on hierarchical relationships. In schools : the director-director of studies- teacher. In hospitals : chief doctor, the doctor,-nurse. The largest representative of the hierarchical structure of society is the army and the government. And most often it is a dynamic hierarchy of society. There are people who are trying to eliminate the hierarchical order of the world, the so-called anarchists, but they do not understand that by removing one hierarchy, they will build another.
People tend to strive from the bottom to up, and not vice versa. Everyone wants to live better, and no one - worse. Overtaking each other, rushing upstairs – where are the more power, privilege and wealth. Some see a better life in the admission to the spiritual, the other - to the material. Social hierarchy can be represented as a pyramid. The largest number of social benefits in the pyramid is concentrated at the top, the lowest - at the bottom. People do not rush from the top to down and but from the bottom to the top. But on their way society constructs filter-barrier system.
American sociologists Moore and Davis created the theory of social stratification and management hierarchy, according to which the most valuable position in society are placed at the top because the most important management decisions are taken there. If any decision and error of the mean manage, related to a limited set of people can always be corrected by senior management, mistakes and decisions of top managers relate to the whole population, cannot be corrected, their activities are not insured.
No organization can function for a long time and successfully if all the intellectual forces will concentrate its bottom or in the middle, and all the incompetent employees will be at the top. Such organization will simply collapse. The life principle of the successful organization states: the most talented and educated people should be given more authority and responsibility.
The democratic regime is based on the principles of equality and freedom; the main source of power is considered to be the people. When an authoritarian regime, political power is concentrated in the hands of an individual or group of people, but relative freedom is maintained outside the sphere of politics. But totalitarian power regime tightly controls all aspects of society.
The totalitarian political regime - a regime of "overwhelming dominion" which infinitely intervenes to the lives of citizens, including all their activities within the scope of their control and enforcement of regulation.
Signs of a totalitarian political regime:
1. The presence of a single mass party led by a charismatic leader, as well as the actual fusion of party and state structures. This is kind of "party-state", where the first place in the power hierarchy occupies central party apparatus, and the state acts as a means of implementing the Party program;
2. Monopolization and centralization of power. Under this regime distinction between political and non-political spheres of life disappears ("the country as a single camp"). All activity, including the private and personal life is strictly regulated. Formation of the government at all levels is made through private channels, in a bureaucratic way;
3. "Autocracy" of official ideology, which, through the media, education, propaganda is imposed t the society as the only true way of thinking. The emphasis is not on the individual, but on the "conciliar" values (the state, race, nation, class).
4. The system of physical and psychological terror, the police state regime, where as the basic "legal" principle prevails: "allowed only what is ordered by power, everything else is forbidden."
Communist and fascist regimes are traditionally considered to be totalitarian.
The basic principles of the democratic regime of government:
1. Popular sovereignty, ie, people are the primary carriers of power. All power is from the people and delegated to them. It doesn’t mean that decision making process is directly carried by people, as for example during the referendum.It merely suggests that all carriers of state authority functions have their power through the people, ie, directly through elections.
2. Free elections the authorities that suggest the presence of at least three conditions: freedom nominations as a consequence of freedom of formation and functioning of political parties; freedom of suffrage, ie, universal and equal suffrage on the principle of "one person - one vote"; free voting, perceived as a means of secret ballot, and equality for all in getting information and opportunities to be engaged in propaganda during the election campaign.
3. Obedience of the minority to the majority in strict compliance with the rights of minorities. Main and natural in a democracy, is the duty of the majority - respect of the opposition and its right to free criticism and the right to change, according to the results of new elections, the majority of the former power;
4. Constitutionalism and dominion of law in all spheres of life. The law prevails despite the person before the law all are equal. Hence "frigidity", "coldness" of democracy, i.e., it is rational.