Industrial development in Ukraine
Heavy industries, especially ferrous metallurgy, coal and machine building, are predominant in the national industrial complex. Ukraine has a major ferrous-metals industry, and it rivals China as the fourth largest steel producer in the world. Another important branch of industry is mining, its main products are coal, natural gas and iron ore.
The industrial heartland of the country is the Donets Coal Basin. It is the most densely populated and highly industrialized region of the country and one of the major metallurgical and heavy industry complexes. The basin has large iron and steelworks, and plants that produce mining equipment, other types of heavy machinery and a variety of chemicals.
There are also other powerful machine-building complexes. For example “Azovmash”, which supplies its products to numerous industrial branches; Nyzhniodniprovsky Tube RollingWorks, which ranks with the main suppliers of multiple purpose steel pipes, railway wheels, tread bands, large ring products, flanges and various tube-based consume goods in the south-east of Europe.
Manufacturing attainments of the production complexes “Pivdenny (Southern) Machine-building Plant” and the “M.K. Yanhel Pivdenny Design Bureau” are known far outside Ukraine. Both enterprises maintain close business contacts, which help them to develop unique space systems varying in class and designation. The products include multi-purpose tractors, modem trolley-busses and other production whose major characteristics match top international standards.
Aircrafts produced by Ukrainian manufactures are known all over the world. Models developed by the “Antonov Aviation Research-and-Technology Complex” are built in Kyiv and Kharkiv. Aircraft engines developed by the “Prohrcs Machinc-Building Design Bureau of Zaporizhya” arc installed in a great number of aircrafts and helicopter models.
“Chornomorsky Shipyard” ranks with the largest shipbuilding enterprises of Europe and the rest of the world. In 1991 it marked its birth centennial, and it used to manufacture destroyers, base ships, supply ice- brakers, helicopter carriers and ships, big full-freezer factory trawlers and tankers. Its powerful production base, manufacturing and metallurgical factories guarantee the fulfillment of most sophisticated commissions from ship owners and from various industrial branches.
“Lviv Bus Works” is the leading bus-manufacturing enterprise in Ukraine, and it ranks with the like companies in Europe. Its production capacities ensure an output of almost 10.000 different models and diesel-driven modifications.
Defense industry also occupies an important place. At present, it is being reconstructed and converted, with the emphasis on the output of consumer goods, particularly the ones involving high technologies.
Ukraine has also well developed chemical and food industries. There are more than 50 plants which produce a wide range of agricultural equipment.
Ukraine is a well-developed industrial and agricultural country. It has a big metallurgical, machine building, fuel and power base. It is rich in iron ore, natural gas, coal, oil, salt and other mineral recourses. One of the most important branches of national economy is the power industry. Besides, Ukraine produces planes and ocean-liners, tractors and combines, excavators and cars, up-to-date instruments and equipment, electronic microscopes and TV sets, computers and synthetic diamonds,
turbines and various consumer goods. Ukraine has a developed transportation system.
What questions do you think an interviewer and applicant could ask each other at job interview?
Whether it's your first job interview or not, it is always very challenging. Being prepared for the interview is the only way to reduce this tension. Several days before the interview study the important and common questions and their answers. Interviewers will typically ask a number of common job interview questions and answers to assess the candidate’s suitability for the job.
The interviewer wants to evaluate your compatibility with the position you are interviewing for. Make your answers relevant to the position requirements. General reasons such as new challenges, interacting with people, growth and learning opportunities, using your initiative, working as part of a team and meeting set objectives and goals are usually applicable to most positions.
One of the most often asked questions is What do you like least about your current or last position? With typical interview questions like this be careful that the dislikes you talk about do not refer to specific characteristics of the position you are interviewing for. Stay away from reasons such as overtime and salary. Avoid criticism of your boss, management or co-workers. Be general and refer to the lack of or absence of what you seek in a job or work environment.
Interviewer can also ask you to describe your previous manager/boss/ supervisor.
When answering a question like this, avoid saying anything that can be interpreted as negative. It sends up a red flag about your attitude to authority and supervision. Even if there is something truly negative about your boss rather try to find something positive to focus on. The answer you give should be fact-based and not just your opinion.
At the end of the interview you will usually be given an opportunity to ask your questions. And you should remember that not asking good questions during the job interview is a big interview mistake, it indicates a lack of interest and initiative. One of the easiest ways to interview success is to prepare a list of good interview questions to ask the interviewer. Asking thoughtful and well-researched questions during your job interview makes a great impression.
Plan interview questions that go beyond just exploring the routine details. Focus rather on aspects such as role expectations, job priorities, departmental and organizational strategy and needs, management style and expectations. Ask interview questions that show how hard you have thought about the position and the company.
Good tips for asking a job interview question include:
Ask open-ended questions. Closed questions that require just a "yes” or "no” response contribute little to the flow of the interview and provide minimal information
Avoid interrupting the interviewer, make sure you are at an appropriate point for your question
Only ask questions that are relevant to die job, department, management and organization
Go through the recommended interview questions to ask about the job itself, the management, the organization and, very importantly, what questions not to ask during the interview! Prepare your own list of about ten questions, review the list a number of times before your job interview and be prepared to impress!
You should demonstrate your interest, initiative and strategic understanding of the position and the company. Try to give proper answers and ask focused questions. Highlight your suitability for the job and show that you are better prepared than the other candidates.
ENGLISH AS A WORLD LANGUAGE
For many years we have been referring to English as a global language, the language of communication and technology. English is as important to international communication as VHS is to video, Microsoft to software and Pentium to the microchip. It is, for better or worse, 'the industry standard'. And those who don't speak it at least risk losing business unlike the increasing number who do. A quarter of the planet currently speaks English. That's one and a half billion people, two thirds of whom speak it as a foreign language.
In a recent survey, 69% of Europeans said they thought everyone speaks English. More than half of them already do. For most, it's not a question of choice but of necessity, as English has rapidly become the first language of business, science and popular culture. Three-quarters of the world's mail is in English. So are four out of five e-mails and most of what you find on the internet.
So, it's obvious that English is enjoying superiority as compared with other 200 languages spoken nowadays. Most international meetings are hold in English. Good level of English is considered to be not luxury, but a necessity. The study of English in my country begins in the first form at school and then continues as a must in a higher educational establishment.
English has become so important, that whatever your job is, you will most probably need to know at least the basics of English. In particular, you need it for doing business on the phone, socializing with clients and colleagues, taking parts in meetings, fishing for the latest information in the internet. In most international companies, you will not be promoted unless you have a certificate in English. These days, if you don't know English, you are in danger of being excluded from what's going on in education, at work and especially in the world of technological advances.
For me, learning English is a pleasure/ opportunity/ investment/ necessity/ a problem, because … (3-4 sentences of your own)
In general I want to feel more confident when I speak, Improve my listening skills, learn lots of new vocabulary, read technical passages without using dictionary so much.
To sum up, I'd like to say that English as the international language is ... (3-4 sentences of your own)
Science in Ukraine
Science is a part of our culture and heritage. It is of great importance for not merely “ivory tower" intellectuals but for the masses of average people.
The Academy of Sciences of Ukraine which up to 1936 was called the All-Ukrainian Academy of Sciences is the highest scientific institution of Ukraine. In the autumn of 1918 a group of well-known scientists, headed by V. Vernadsky, elaborated a project for the organisation of the All- Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, which was realized in 1919. Its first president was Academician Vernadsky.
The large body of scientists of Ukraine has contributed greatly to the development of world science. Numerous important researches have been conducted in Ukraine. Among the results of such researches are the development of the first computers in the former USSR, important advances in the field of electric welding, cybernetics, the technology and organizations of industrial production of artificial diamonds. Achievements in geological science and the application of new techniques in geological prospecting in Ukraine have led to the discovery of payable oil and gas deposits which has made it possible to supply gas to most of the large cities and many populated areas of Ukraine and to increase its power resources. Ukrainian science develops through mutual enrichment with the experience of the scientific centres of different countries.
A significant event in the cultural life of Ukraine was the institution of the Kiev-Mohila College in 1632, which was converted into an academy in 1701. The most prominent philosopher in Ukraine in the 18-th century was H. Skovoroda. He dreamed of a society based on principles of social equality and democracy.
M. Dragomanov was sociologist, historian and specialist in folklore. Works of V. Antonovich, M. Kostomarov and Hrushevsky help us to study history of our independent Ukraine.
Ukrainian scientists have made significant contribution to the development of aerodynamics, the theory of mechanisms and machines, automatic control, filtration theory.
Large scale research in mechanics was and is being carried on at university departments in Kiev and Lviv and at polytechnic institutes in Kiev and Odessa.
A fundamentally new and highly efficient method of raising the quality of special steels and alloys, the electro-slag remelting method has been devised in Ukraine under the direction of B. Paton.
Research in special alloy and powder metallurgy was started in Ukraine in the mid 19-th century at the Kharkiv, later at the Kiev Polytechnic Institute. Systematic and fundamental work in the field of electric welding in Ukraine was started by the eminent scientist Yevhen Paton on whose initiative the Institute of electric welding was organized in 1934. The institute was universally recognized as one of the centres of world welding science. Work on different problems of welding is carried out in Ukraine by B. Paton, V. Lebedev, B. Medovar, A. Makara and others.
Great achievements of the Ukrainian school of science are highly appreciated and recognized all the world over.
We cannot imagine our life without computers
The 20th century has given us plenty of things that improve our lives: TV, calculators, mobile phones, computers. This made our lives easier and more comfortable. Computers play a very important part in our life. They help people in their work and studies. They save us a lot of time. Computers give access to a lot of information.
The first mechanical computer was conceived by Charles Babbage in 1835, but it never went beyond the design stage. John Von Neumann's computer, EDVAC, built in 1949, was the first to use binary arithmetic and to store its operating instructions internally. This design still forms the basis of today's computers. Nowadays all types of computers can do arithmetic problems faster than any person alive. By means of electric processes it can find the answer to a very difficult and complicated problem in a few seconds. A computer can "remember" information you give it. It keeps the information in its "memory" until it is needed. Each specific problem requires a specific computer. One kind of computer can help us to build a spaceship; another kind can help us to navigate it.
Computers are the big "brains" that solve the most difficult problems of science and can do many different jobs. They may support from 10 to 200 or so users at once. Computers are used for highly complex scientific tasks, such as analyzing the results of nuclear physics experiments and weather forecasting. Global computer network is connecting governments, companies, universities and many other networks and users.
Art is produced with the help of a computer. Since the 1950s the use of computers has been evident in most artistic disciplines, including film animation, architecture and music. Computer graphics has been the most developed area.
In the last ten years or so, most large businesses have become completely dependent on computers for scoring and looking for information, for writing and for calculating financial and mathematical information. In many offices and organizations computer messages have replaced messages written on paper and they are now called e-mail or electronic mail. E-mail is not only fast and easy, but it also saves paper and the work of moving paper from one place to another. The computers became popular. Scientists found that computers made fewer mistakes and could fulfill the tasks much faster than almost any number of people using usual methods. As their popularity grew the number of factories producing them also grew.
THE HEAT POWER ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
The Heat Power Engineering Department is one of the oldest at the KPI. It was formed in 1930 as the basic department of the Kyiv Polytechnic Institute (the National Technical University of Ukraine). The first deans were professors Kondak and Shvets’.
At present the department trains above 2000 students including above 300 ones from many foreign countries. The Department graduates are able to decide difficult problems concerned with the design of engines with involving of modern computation facilities, specified methods of analysis of physical fields in generators on the base of field numerical methods, technology of production of engines and generators and their reliability.
The department successfully prepares specialists in the sphere of designing, installation, repair and exploitation of heat power plants and nuclear power plants. The department has modern educational, research and experimental base with well equipped laboratories. The educational process is performed by the collective of highly trained professors and teachers, 80% of teachers have scientific titles and degrees.
The department conducts extensive scientific researches as to increase of efficiency and reliability of the power equipment with participation of students and postgraduates. It has strong creative links with the leading scientific and research institutes, enterprises, institutions in Ukraine and abroad.
A lot of graduates of the department work at the design, scientific and research institutes, at power plants, for installation companies. Attached to the department, there is a special scientific and research laboratory of heat power plants of the Ministry of Power Engineering of Ukraine.
The department creates all necessary conditions for the successful fulfillment of scientific and educational programs, going in for sports and for rest.
I study at the Kiev Polytechnic Institute which is one of the oldest and largest educational institutions in our country.
I am a student of the faculty of thermal engineering. The thermal Engineering Department was founded in 1931. The first head of the department was professor . Shvets, a leading expert in the field of thermal engineering.
Thermal Engineering is the most important branch of power industry.
People cannot do without thermal energy nowadays and they use in all the spheres of our everyday life both inside and outside our homes.
For seventy years of its existence the department has made great progress in its development.
One of the most authoritative department of the Kiev Polytechnic Institute is APRODOS, which is engaged in modeling and programming of dynamic objects and systems. This department was founded in 1997 at first it was separate faculty but now it is the department within the faculty of thermal engineering.
During the junior years the students take the usual basic subjects such as physics, mathematics, chemistry, descriptive geometry, drawing, and the humanities.
Students attend lectures in history and study foreign languages. While studying our students are familiarizing with all programming languages at the junior years as well as with a lot of subjects of general education.
The profound study of theory is accompanied by practical training at first in specially equipped laboratories where the students make experiments checking up their theoretical knowledge. Later students are given opportunities to have practical training at various industrial enterprises, companies, design studios.
Having defended their graduation projects students get work according to their speciality. Every year more than three hundred highly qualified specialists graduate from the Thermal engineering Department.
The task set before graduates of APRODOS is to increase the efficiency of computer technologies in the age of modem computer science.