A? An? Или The? Часть 2

A? An? Или The? Часть 2

Kravtsova Alyona

От Pre-Intermediate до Advanced.

Используем артикль "а" перед гласной "u" когда она обозначает звук [ju], например a uniform, но!!! если гласная "u" обозначает звук [ʌ], как в слове umbrella, то говорим и пишем an umbrella.
Используем артикль "an" перед согласной "h",когда она "немая", например как в слове hour - an hour. Если же согласная "h" произносится, то используем a - a horse.
We use "a /an":

🐥 with singular counable nouns when we are talking about them in general (при обобщении).
elephant is a big animal. (Which animal? We don't mean a specific elephant; we mean elephants in general.)

🐥after the verbs "to be" and "to have"(после глаголов "to be" и "to have").
He is
an astronaut. He has got a pet cat.

🐥 to mean per(обозначая в/за).
He works five days a week.

🐥 before Mr/ Mrs/ Miss+surname when we refer to an unfamiliar person (перед Mr/ Mrs/ Miss+фамилия когда обращаются к незнакомому человеку).
There's a Mr Smith waiting for you.

🐥 with: money (a/one dollar), fractions (a/one quater), weight/measures(an/one inch), whole numbers (a/one million), price/weight($1 a litre), frequency/time(twice a day), distance/fuel (50 miles a gallon), distance/speed(100km an hour) and illnesses(a headache, a fever, have a cold, catch a cold, (a) toothache, (a) backache, a temperature)

🐥 a/an+noun meaning only one AND one+noun when we want to emphasise that there is only one (a/an+noun в значении один и one+noun когда ходим акцентировать, что только один).
There's a pen on the desk. There is only one pen on the desk, not two.

🐥 a/an or the before a singular countable noun to refer to a class of people, animals or things. However, we omit a/an or the before a noun in the plural when it represents a class(перед исчисляемым существительным в единственном числе,что обозначает группу, отряд, класс людей, животных, вещей используем a/an или the. Упускаем a/an или the перед таким существительным во множественном числе).
A/The dolpin is mammal. Also:Dolphins are mammals. Exception: Man is a mammal too(not:The man).

We don't use "a /an":

🐥 with uncountable or plural nouns. We can use some or no article instead.(с не исчисляемыми или существительными во множественном числе не ставим артикль или используем some.)
I want some
sugar and some strawberries. I don't like apples.

[ðe] — перед согласными звуками
[ði] — перед гласными звуками
We use "the":

🐥 before singular and plural nouns, both countable and uncountable when we are talking about something specific or when the noun is mentioned for a second time. (С существительными в ед. и мн.ч, исчисляемыми и не исчисляемыми, когда говорим о чем-то конкретном, единичном или когда существительное упоминается второй раз.)
boy who hasjust left is my cousin. (Which boy? Not any boy, the boy who has just left.)
There is a cat on the sofa.
The cat is sleeping. ("The cat" is mentioned for a second time.)

🐥 with the words cinema, theatre, radio, country(side), seaside, beach, etc.
We go to the beach every Sunday

🐥 before nouns which are unique.(с существительными, обозначающими что-либо уникальное)
Haven't you been to the Acropolis yet?

🐥 before names of cinemas (the Odeon), hotels (the Hilton), theatres (the Rex), museums (the Prado),newspapers (the Times), ships (the Queen Mary), institutions (the RSPCA), galleries (the Tate Gallery).

🐥 before names of rivers(the Thames), seas (the Black Sea), groups of islands/states (the Bahamas, the USA), mountain ranges (the Alps), deserts (the Gobi desert), oceans (the Pacific)and names with ...of (The Tower of London, the Statue of Liberty).
Note: the equator, the North/South Pole, the north of England, the South/West/North/East.

🐥 before musical instruments, dances.
the piano, the tango

🐥 before names of families (the Browns), nationalities ending in -sh, -ch or -ese (the English, the Dutch, the Japanese). Other nationalities are used with or without the (the Greeks, Italians etc). (с названиями национальностей, что заканчиваются на -sh, -ch or -ese. С остальными национальностями можно и ставить и не ставить the.)

🐥 before titles without proper names.
the Queen, the President

🐥 adjectives used as plural nouns (the rich, the poor, the young, the blind etc) and the superlative degree of adjectives/adverbs (the best, the worst).
He's the most intelligent student of all.
Note: "most"used as a determiner followed bya noun, does not take "the".
Most people believe he's a liar.

🐥 before the words station, shop, cinema, pub, library, city, village etc.
She went to the station to see Jim off.

🐥 before morning, afternoon, evening, night.
I'll be at home in the evening. BUT: at night, at noon, at midnight, by day/night, at 4 o'clock etc.

🐥 before historical references/events.
the Renaissance, the Middle Ages, the First World War (but: World War I)

🐥 before only, last, first (used as adjectives).
He was thr last person to come.

We don't use "the":

🐥 with proper nouns.(с именами собственными)
Emma is from London.

🐥 before names of sports, activities, colours, days, months, holidays, languages(not follewed by the word "language"), drinks, substances and meals.
He plays tennis well. She likes blue. Coke isn't expensive. Lunch is ready.
We speak English, but: The English lanuage is spoken all over the world.

🐥 before names of countries (England), cities (London), streets (Bond Street, but: the High Street), squares (Trafalgar Square), bridges (Tower Bridge, but: The Golden Gate Bridge, The Severn bridge), parks (Hyde Park), stations (Victoria Staition), individual mountains (Everest), islands (Cyprus), lakes (Lake Michigan), continents (Europe), but: the Argentine, the Netherlands, (the) Sudan, the Hague, the Vatican.

🐥 before the possessive case or possessive adj.(с притяжательным падежом и притяжательными прилагательными)
This isn't your coat, it's Kate's.

🐥 before the words "home" and "Mother/Father" when we talk about our own home/parents.
Father isn't at home

🐥 before titles with proper names.
Queen Elizabeth, President Kennedy

🐥 before bed, school, church, college, court, university, hospital, prison, when they are used for the reason they exist.
John was sentto prison. BUT: His mother went to the prisin to visit him last week. (She went to the prison as a visitor.)

🐥 before two-word names whose first word is the name of a person or place(Kennedy Airport, Westminster Abbey, but: the White House, (because the first word "White" is not the name of a person or place.)

🐥 before pubs, restaurants, shops, banks and hotels which have the name of their founder and end in -s or -'s (Harrods, Lloyds Bank, Emma's pub).

🐥 before work(place of work)navere takes "the".
She's at work.

🐥 before means of transport: by bus/by car/ by train/ by plane etc but: in the car, on the bus/train etc.
She travelles by plane. But: She left on the 6 o'clock plane yeasterday.

🐥 We say: flu/the flu, measles/the measles, mumps/the mumps, but: He's got diabetes.


Эти правила хорошо пару раз прочитать, просмотреть, но не заучивать их, а стараться, насколько это возможно, понять, вникнуть, пропустить их через себя - придумывать свои примеры, ассоциации, выделять из речи при аудировании, из текста при чтении. Если при говорении или письме забыли - пикаем(от англ. peek - подглядывать)) - такое подглядывание намного эффективней зубрежки.