The Ancient Celts

The Ancient Celts

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The древние кельты were a people of the North. They were fierce warriors, great craftsmen, and famous throughout the Ancient Mediterranean World. The Celts were feared by the Greeks and Romans, but the Celts' fascinating culture has intrigued us for 2,500 years. The Celts' fascinating history has created much controversy, however. Let's examine some of their fascinating facts. Using historical records, we can learn more about these ancient people.

The Celtic people were a socially stratified group with a kinship system that remained intact for millennia. The rulers of these tribes ruled through their land and trade revenue. They maintained the loyalty of their followers through gift-giving, Celtic feasts, and social display. They placed great value on education and a strong respect for learning. They maintained these ties by fostering children from other aristocratic families. The aristocratic caste had power over their women, children, and communities, and the ability to enforce it through social displays.

In addition to their extensive trading network, the Celtics also made use of mineral resources, such as tin from Britain and amber from the Baltic. These valuable resources were also used to trade with their neighbors. Their advanced technology led them to conquer and subdue much of Europe. They developed their own coins, adopted flat grave burials, and traded goods with people from different cultures. Eventually, they also began to produce a rich elite that sprang up in all parts of Europe.

Although the archaeological findings of the Iron Age in Britain suggest that Celtic societies were regional and not uniform, there is still considerable debate over whether this is the true story. Nevertheless, some archaeologists have become more skeptical about the assumption that invading Celts were responsible for the La Tene art found in Wales. Perhaps it was the Celtic women who spread fashion throughout many societies over time through long-distance exchange contacts. Regardless of the case, the style of the artifacts is uniquely British, a trait absent from continental Europe.

While many of the ancient Celts' religion remains unknown, they were highly religious and practiced ritual human sacrifice. Known as "sacrificial rites," these ceremonies involved the ritual sacrifice of human and animal victims. They were often performed in forests or near rivers. Celtic priests known as druids were involved in these rituals. In addition to worshiping nature spirits, the Celts also sacrificed warriors by cutting their heads off and exposing their bodies.

During the fourth and first centuries BCE, Celtic culture spread to all corners of Europe. By the second century, the Celts in Northern Italy and parts of Spain were under the rule of the Roman Empire. Later, the Romans conquered the Gauls in Northern France and Iberia. As a result, the Celts and their culture eventually declined under the rule of Julius Caesar and his successors, Augustus and Tiberius.

The Celtic world was influenced by an increase in local competition for resources and trade opportunities. This increased competition resulted in the building of large fortified settlements known as oppida. These sites were fortified locations built in the first and second centuries BCE. Generally, they consisted of circuit walls made of earthworks. The oppida were used as a safe place to concentrate workshops and store community resources.