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Illegal drug trade in Colombia Spanish: Colombia has had four major drug trafficking cartels and several bandas criminales , or BACRIMs \\\\\\\\\\\\\[1\\\\\\\\\\\\\] which eventually created a new social class and influenced several aspects of Colombian culture and politics. The Colombian government efforts to reduce the influence of drug-related criminal organizations is one of the origins of the Colombian conflict , an ongoing low-intensity war among rival narcoparamilitary groups, guerrillas and drug cartels fighting each other to increase their influence and against the Colombian government that struggles to stop them. Worldwide demand of psychoactive drugs during the s and s eventually increased the production and processing of these in Colombia. The drug barons of Colombia , such as Pablo Escobar and Jose Rodriguez Gacha were long considered by authorities to be among the most dangerous, wealthy and powerful men in the world. Since the establishment of the War on Drugs , the United States and European countries have provided financial, logistical, tactical and military aid to the government of Colombia in order to implement plans to combat the illegal drug trade. The most notable of these programs has been the Plan Colombia which also intended to combat leftist organizations, such as the FARC guerrillas, who have controlled many coca-growing regions in Colombia over the past decades. In that same year, Peru surpassed Colombia as the main producer of coca leaves in the world. Colombia has acted in a more aggressive way than most of the countries which signed the Vienna Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances , by including chemicals and drug precursors, that are freely traded in the rest of the world, in the list of nationally controlled substances. Given the fact that the population of the United States is the largest user of illegal drugs in the world, with one in six citizens claiming to have used cocaine in their life, \\\\\\\\\\\\\[10\\\\\\\\\\\\\] the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime UNODC , after reviewing the efficiency of the actions taken by the Colombian government for more than 20 years, has called for cocaine consuming countries - mostly in Europe and North America - to take their share of responsibility and reduce demand for cocaine, \\\\\\\\\\\\\[4\\\\\\\\\\\\\] explaining that there are limits to what the Andean governments can do if cocaine consumption continues unabated, a position that has been maintained by the Colombian government for many years and was later accepted by the United States government. The actions of the Colombian National Police against drug trafficking have been so effective that the country has captured and extradited drug lords at a rate of over per year for the last 10 years and currently gives technical advice to 7 countries in Latin America and 12 in Africa. Colombia rejects threats and blackmail of the United States of America after the threat of Donald Trump to decertify the country as a partner in counter-narcotics efforts. Between and Colombia became the main producer of coca in the world along with cocaine , and one of the major exporters of heroin. The environment is damaged through deforestation caused by clearing fields for plant cultivation. The issues are difficult to address because of the wealth and power of drug traffickers. Many plantations provide prostitutes to sustain their employees. Prohibition of drugs in Colombia was based on the introduction of prohibition laws in the United States \\\\\\\\\\\\\[ citation needed \\\\\\\\\\\\\] with the Harrison Narcotics Act of which prohibited the production and consumption of opiates and cocaine , in added marijuana , tobacco and alcohol and later on a variety of stimulant, depressant, and hallucinogenic drugs between and Some psychoactive drugs were already grown in Colombia at limited level by local indigenous groups , who mostly employed marijuana and coca leaves for ceremonial and traditional medical uses as part of their culture. To counter increasing production and consumption, the government of the United States and the government of Colombia along with other countries initiated a campaign called the ' War on Drugs '. It was responsible for bringing in over tons of marijuana over a month period in the mids. With prohibition, established producers and traffickers formed armed and clandestine cartels. The cartel sometimes cooperated with guerrilla groups such as the M , to process and protect illegal drugs. The cartel originally imported most coca from Bolivia and Peru , processing it into cocaine inside Colombia and then distributing it through most of the trafficking routes and distribution points in the U. The Cali Cartel originally began as a ring of kidnappers known as Las Chemas. Of the original leaders of the cartel, Wilber Varela was the last remaining member being sought by the authorities, but was found dead on January 31, The Norte del Valle cartel is estimated to have exported more than 1. Indictments filed in the United States charge the Norte del Valle cartel with using violence and brutality to further its goals, including the murder of rivals, individuals who failed to pay for cocaine, and associates who were believed to be working as informants. Leaders of the Norte del Valle cartel were further alleged to have bribed and corrupted Colombian law enforcement and Colombian legislators to, among other things, attempt to block the extradition of Colombian narcotics traffickers to the United States for further prosecution. According to the indictments filed in the United States, members of the Norte del Valle cartel even conducted their own wiretaps in Colombia to intercept the communications of rival drug traffickers and Colombian and United States law enforcement officials. State Department in As is typical with many Colombia-based organizations, Gamboa compartmentalized his business dealings. His influence in this region was so strong that traffickers even asked him for permission before conducting assassinations. After his arrest, Caracol immediately was flown to Bogota, Colombia, where he was held on murder, kidnapping, and terrorism charges. He was extradited to the United States in August On March 13, , Caracol pleaded guilty to participating in a narcotics trafficking conspiracy that smuggled tens of thousands of kilograms of cocaine into New York and other cities. His plea was announced on the morning he was to go on trial in Federal District Court in Manhattan after losing a crucial appellate ruling. New paramilitary groups and related drug trafficking organizations that have continued operating after the AUC demobilization process are referred to as bandas criminales emergentes \\\\\\\\\\\\\[29\\\\\\\\\\\\\] \\\\\\\\\\\\\[30\\\\\\\\\\\\\] or BACRIM Spanish for 'emerging criminal organizations' by the Colombian government. According to the Colombian National Police , these groups had 3, members by July The successor groups are often made up of mid-level paramilitary commanders and criminal structures that either did not demobilize in the first place or were re-activated after the demobilizations had concluded. New recruits have also come from traditional areas for paramilitary recruitment. These groups continue to be involved in the drug trade, commit widespread human rights abuses, engage in forced displacement and undermine democratic legitimacy in other ways, both in collusion with and opposition to FARC-EP guerrillas. Members of government security forces have also been accused of tolerating their growth. It allowed Colombia to extradite any Colombian suspected of drug trafficking to the US and to be put on trial there for their crimes. This was a major problem for the cartel since the drug traffickers had little access to their local power and influence in the US, and a trial there would most likely lead to imprisonment. However, the cartel applied a 'bend or break' strategy towards several of these supporters. When attacks against the police began to cause major losses, some of the major drug lords themselves were temporarily pushed out of Colombia, going into hiding while they ordered cartel members to take out key supporters of the extradition treaty. His movement was populist, funding free education and health programs in rural areas and the construction of homes for slum-dwellers. His rhetoric was also anti-American, anti-Russian and anti-imperialist. His program showed similarities with that of Pablo Escobar, who paid for lighting to be installed in local football clubs and also paid for housing for slum-dwellers. In contrast, the Cali Cartel adopted a much more subtle and non-confrontation attitude. Many of its bosses were from already wealthy and influential families, and they tended to invest their earnings from the cocaine trade in legitimate businesses. This often included complementary businesses, such as pharmacy and chemical manufacturing, which provided a cover for the purchase of the chemicals needed to refine the coca-paste purchased in the coca-growing regions into cocaine for export to the USA. The guerrillas saw in the illegal drug trade a form of financing their guerrilla movement. Other guerrillas such as FARC and ELN followed the same example and also began collecting taxes on small illegal drug trafficking organizations to improve their financial stability. The right-wing para-military groups initially grew out of the private armies of cocaine cartels. Para-military groups such as the AUC assassinated trade unionists, left-wing priests and any others deemed to be leftist sympathists. They have also collaborated with Colombian state forces. This provided the FARC with unprecedented opportunities to extract resources from the cocaine industry to deepen its long insurgency against the Colombian state. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Coca production in Colombia. The Office of Envigado. Norte del Valle Cartel. Colombia portal Crime portal. Lessons from a Surrender ', CrisisGroup. Retrieved 31 July Retrieved 17 December Archived from the original on 11 November Retrieved 16 December Un croquis para reflexionar'. Retrieved 21 August Archived from the original on El plan colombia y sus consecuencias en Ecuador derechos. Organized Crime and the Challenge to Democracy. Retrieved 3 August Extradition of Caracol Archived at the Wayback Machine. El General de los Secretos semana. Retrieved 11 February Archived from the original on 6 June Common Criminals or Actors in Armed Conflict? Archived from the original on 22 March Retrieved 18 February Military Forces of Colombia: Air Force Army Navy. Illegal drug trade in the Americas. North America South America. Dependencies and other territories. Retrieved from ' https: Illegal drug trade in Colombia. Webarchive template wayback links Articles with Spanish-language external links Articles containing Spanish-language text All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from September Articles with attributed pull quotes Articles with unsourced statements from September Views Read Edit View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. This page was last edited on 21 June , at By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. For more than 30 years Colombia has demonstrated its commitment — paying a very high cost in human lives — with overcoming the drug problem. This commitment stems from the profound conviction that the consumption, production and trafficking of drugs constitute a serious threat to the well-being and security of citizens. Colombia is undoubtedly the country that has fought the most drugs and with more successes on this front. No one has to threaten us to meet this challenge. The problem of drugs is global. Overcoming it can only be achieved through cooperation and under the principle of joint responsibility. Outline Index Category Portal.

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