Nasal cavaty and whatever is near

Nasal cavaty and whatever is near


используемые языки: английский, русский (//) и латинский (L).

Заметки сделаны по ходу просмотра видео ниже, которое является частью acland's video atlas of human anatomy

narrator Robert D. Acland

Nasal Cavity / полость носа / L. cavum nasi

Oral Cavity / ротовая полость / L. cavum oris

PHARYNX / глотка /: nasopharynx / носоглотка / L. Pars nasalis pharyngis, oropharynx / ротоглотка / L. Pars oralis pharyngis , laryngopharynx (also hypopharynx) / гортаноглотка / L. Pars laryngea pharyngis

a passageway for air and food. 14−16 cm long, it extends from the fornix / свод мозга / to the beginning of the esophagus in front of the 6th cervical vertebra.

Esophagus / пищевод / L. Oesophagus

23−26 cm long passage extending from below the cricoid cartilage at the level of C6 to the cardiac part of the stomach

Trachea / трахея /

Piriform aperture. (anterior nasal aperture) L Apertura piriformis / грушевидный / — Pear-shaped anterior nasal opening in the bony skull

Right/left nasal cavities

Bony nasal septum / Носовая перегородка / L. Septum nasi osseum — Bony partition formed by the vomer and the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid

Coronal (frontal) plane

ethmoid bone (решётчатая кость)

ethmoid bone / решётчатая кость / L Os ethmoidale

hard palate L Palatum durum

Anterior cranial fossa / Передняя черепная ямка / L. Fossa cranii [cranialis]anterior — Cranial cavity extending from the wall of the frontal bone to the lesser wing of the sphenoid.

На картинке сверху вниз: anterior, middle (L. media) и posterior fossae

Henry Gray (1825–1861). Anatomy of the Human Body. 1918.


superior nasal concha (turbinate) / верхняя носовая раковина / L Concha nasalis superior. Small, upper concha situated in front of the sphenoidal sinus.

middle nasal concha (turbinate) / средняя носовая раковина / L Concha nasalis media. — Most of the openings of the paranasal sinuses lie below it.

inferior nasal concha (turbinate) / нижняя носовая раковина / L. Concha nasalis inferior. — Lowest and longest of the nasal conchae. It covers the opening of the nasolacrimal duct.

L. meatus — проход, ход

superior nasal meatus / верхний носовой ход /. L. Meatus nasi superior Nasal passage above the middle nasal concha

middle nasal meatus / средний носовой ход / L Meatus nasi mediusNasal passage between the middle and inferior nasal concha.

inferior nasal meatus / нижний носовой ход / meatus nasi inferior Lower nasal passage between the inferior nasal concha and the floor of the nasal cavity.

maxillary sinus / верхнечелюстная пазуха, гайморова пазуха / L sinus maxillaris.Paranasal cavity within the body of the maxilla. It measures over 3 cm vertically and sagittally and 2.5 cm in the frontal plane. Its floor usually lies at least 1 cm belowthe floor of the nasal cavity.

ethmoidal labyrinth. L. labyrinthus ethmoidalis. — Collective term for the ethmoidal air cells situated between the orbital and nasal cavities.

ethmoidal air cells (ethmoidal sinuses) L cellulae ethmoidales.

Ehtmoidal sinuses

see paranasal sinuses

perpendicular plate of ethmoid bone / вертикальная пластинка / L. lamina perpendicularis. — It extends downward from the ethmoid bone and forms the upper part of the nasal septum.

Vomer / сошник /— Unpaired bone forming a part of the nasal septum and lying between the sphenoid, maxillary and palatine bones as well as the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid.


articulation A fixed or movable joint between bones

see process (wiki)

Maxilla / верхняя челюсть /

Medial aspect of left palatine bone

Lateral L. lateralis / to the side / — refers to the sides of an animal, as in "left lateral" and "right lateral". The term medial L medius / middle / — is used to refer to structures close to the centre of an organism, called the "median plane". (anatomical terms of location)


medial pterygoid plate L. Lamina medialis [processus pterygoidei]

L. processus pterygoideus ossis sphenoidalis — крыловидный отросток клиновидной кости

sphenoid bone (клиновидная кость)

frontal bone / лобная кость / L. os frontale.

«All paranasal sinuses communicate with the nasal cavity»

frontal sinus / лобная пазуха / L sinus frontalis. It averages 3 cm high and 2.5 cmwide and often extends 1.8 cm posteriorly, thereby forming a part of the orbital roof.

medial view of the left half of skull

molar, premolar teeth

sphenoidal sinus L. sinus sphenoidalis — paired sinus within the sphenoid bone behind the sphenoethmoidal recess and above the nasopharyngeal cavity; it opens into the sphenoethmoidal recess.

sella turcica / турецкое седло / — It lies above the sphenoidal sinus and contains the hypophysis

occipital bone / затылочная кость /L. os occipitale. It lies between the sphenoid, temporal and parietal bones

occipital bone

crista galli (wiki) / петушиный гребень / — Small bony process that projects upward fromthe anterior cranial fossa and gives attachment to the falx cerebri (part of the ethmoidal bone)

Cribriform plate and foramina L. Lamina et foramina cribrosa. — Elongated horizontal plate occupying the median plane between the nasal cavity and the anterior cranial fossa. Its numerous foramina transmit the olfactory nerve fibers.

L. cribrosus — решётчатый

L. foramen — отверстие

cribriform plate

Lamina papyracea — orbital lamina of ethmoid bone

lamina papyracea

(wiki) The ethmoid articulates with thirteen bones:

two bones of the neurocranium—the frontal, and the sphenoid (at the sphenoidal body and at the sphenoidal conchae).

eleven bones of the viscerocranium —, two nasal bones, two maxillae, two lacrimals, two palatines, two inferior nasal conchae, and the vomer

anterior/posterior, inferior/superior

L. uncinatus крючковидный

L. processus — отросток

uncinate process / крючковидный отросток / L. processus uncinatus. Hooklike process that extends posteriorly and inferiorly from the ethmoid bone. It is almost entirely concealed by the middle nasal concha and partially closes the semilunar hiatus.

frontonasal duct / лобно-носовой канал (соустье, анастамоз) /

Infundibulum ethmoidale — recess in front of the ethmoidal bulla in the middle nasal meatus. It receives the openings of the maxillary and frontal sinuses.

L. recessus — углубление, карман, синус

nasolacrimal duct (tear duct) L Ductus nasolacrimalis — Duct that is directly continuous with the larcrimal sac and about 1.2−2.4 cm in length. It passes through the nasolacrimal canal and opens into the inferior nasal meatus. Its flattened lumen is lined by a mucosa containing two ormore layers of columnar epithelium bearing cilia at some sites.

nasolacrimal duct

L. lacrimalis — слёзный

Sphenopalatine foramen / клиновидно-небное отверстие / L. foramen sphenopalatinum. — superior opening in the pterygopalatine fossa leading into the nasal cavity. The largest part is formed by the palatine bone, a lesser part by the sphenoid

L. sphenopalatinus — клиновиднонёбный

pterygomaxillary fissure / Крыловидно-верхнечелюстная щель /

Temporal fossa. / височная ямка / L. Fossa temporalis. — Area between the temporal line and the zygomatic arch. (wiki)

Zygomatic arch. / скуловая дуга / L. Arcus zygomaticus. — Bony arch formed by the union of the zygomatic process of the temporal bone with the temporal process of the zygomatic bone. (wiki)

Infratemporal fossa / подвисочная ямка / L Fossa infratemporalis — Inferior continuation of the temporal fossa located between the ramus of the mandible and the greater wing of the sphenoid. It contains the pterygoid muscles, the pterygoid plexus, and the ramus of the mandibular nerve.

choanae (Posterior nasal apertures) / хоаны /

The pterygoid hamulus is a hook-like process at the lower extremity of the medial pterygoid plate of the sphenoid bone.

L. hamulus — крючок

see Eustachian tube / Евстахиева труба, слуховая труба /

Mandibular nerve. N. mandibularis. Third division (branch) of the trigeminal nerve. It passes through the foramen ovale and into the infratemporal fossa. Besides sensory fibers, it contains motor fibers for the masticatory muscles.

atlas and axis

external nose L. nasus externus

nasal openings (nostrils). Nares. They are surrounded by the nasal alae and nasal septum.

nasal bone

septal nasal cartilage

Nasal vestibule

mucous membrane

torus tubarius

pharyngeal recess

soft palate / мягкое нёбо / L. Palatum molle (velum palatinum) — Soft, posterior part of the palate

Bony (hard) palate. Palatum osseum

Hard palate. L. Palatum durum. Hard, bony part of the palate.

Palatine aponeurosis (wiki)

levator veli palatini (wiki, muscle)

tensor veli palatini (wiki, muscle)

L. velum — занавеска, парус