Меляса — ВікіпедіяМеляса — Вікіпедія
Меляса — Вікіпедія
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Патока — Maltodextrin is a polysaccharide that is used as a food additive. It is produced from starch by partial hydrolysis and is found as a white hygroscopic spray-dried powder. Maltodextrin is easily digestible, being absorbed as rapidly as glucose and it is commonly used for the production of soft drinks and candy. It can also be found as an ingredient in a variety of processed foods. Maltodextrin is typically composed of a mixture of chains that vary from three to 17 glucose units long, maltodextrins are classified by DE and have a DE between 3 and Maltodextrin can be derived from any starch. In the US, this starch is usually corn, in Europe, some individuals suffering from gluten-related disorders may be concerned by the presence of wheat derived maltodextrin but it is highly unlikely to contain significant amounts of gluten. This improves the mouthfeel of the beer, increases head retention, Maltodextrin is not fermented by yeast, so it does not increase the alcohol content of the brew. It is also used in some such as potato chips. It is used in light peanut butter to reduce the fat content, Maltodextrin is also sometimes taken as a supplement by bodybuilders and other athletes in powder form or in gel packets. Maltodextrin is used as an additive to thicken food products such as infant formula. It is also used as a filler in sugar substitutes and other products, Maltodextrin has a glycemic index ranging from 85 to Icodextrin Maltose Maltotriose Maltodextrin entry on Grokfood. Russian belongs to the family of Indo-European languages and is one of the four living members of the East Slavic languages, written examples of Old East Slavonic are attested from the 10th century and beyond. It is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia and the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages and it is also the largest native language in Europe, with million native speakers in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. Russian is the eighth most spoken language in the world by number of native speakers, the language is one of the six official languages of the United Nations. Russian is also the second most widespread language on the Internet after English, Russian distinguishes between consonant phonemes with palatal secondary articulation and those without, the so-called soft and hard sounds. This distinction is found between pairs of almost all consonants and is one of the most distinguishing features of the language, another important aspect is the reduction of unstressed vowels. Russian is a Slavic language of the Indo-European family and it is a lineal descendant of the language used in Kievan Rus. From the point of view of the language, its closest relatives are Ukrainian, Belarusian, and Rusyn. An East Slavic Old Novgorod dialect, although vanished during the 15th or 16th century, is considered to have played a significant role in the formation of modern Russian. In the 19th century, the language was often called Great Russian to distinguish it from Belarusian, then called White Russian and Ukrainian, however, the East Slavic forms have tended to be used exclusively in the various dialects that are experiencing a rapid decline. In some cases, both the East Slavic and the Church Slavonic forms are in use, with different meanings. For details, see Russian phonology and History of the Russian language and it is also regarded by the United States Intelligence Community as a hard target language, due to both its difficulty to master for English speakers and its critical role in American world policy. The standard form of Russian is generally regarded as the modern Russian literary language, mikhail Lomonosov first compiled a normalizing grammar book in , in the Russian Academys first explanatory Russian dictionary appeared. By the midth century, such dialects were forced out with the introduction of the education system that was established by the Soviet government. Despite the formalization of Standard Russian, some nonstandard dialectal features are observed in colloquial speech. Education in Russian is still a choice for both Russian as a second language and native speakers in Russia as well as many of the former Soviet republics. Russian is still seen as an important language for children to learn in most of the former Soviet republics, samuel P. It is the most widely spoken and official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, South Tyrol, the German-speaking Community of Belgium and it is also one of the three official languages of Luxembourg. Major languages which are most similar to German include other members of the West Germanic language branch, such as Afrikaans, Dutch, English, Luxembourgish and it is the second most widely spoken Germanic language, after English. One of the languages of the world, German is the first language of about 95 million people worldwide. The German speaking countries are ranked fifth in terms of publication of new books. German derives most of its vocabulary from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family, a portion of German words are derived from Latin and Greek, and fewer are borrowed from French and English. With slightly different standardized variants, German is a pluricentric language, like English, German is also notable for its broad spectrum of dialects, with many unique varieties existing in Europe and also other parts of the world. Copies of Luthers Bible featured a long list of glosses for each region that translated words which were unknown in the region into the regional dialect. Roman Catholics initially rejected Luthers translation, and tried to create their own Catholic standard of the German language — the difference in relation to Protestant German was minimal. It was not until the middle of the 18th century that a widely accepted standard was created, until about , standard German was mainly a written language, in urban northern Germany, the local Low German dialects were spoken. Standard German, which was different, was often learned as a foreign language with uncertain pronunciation. Northern German pronunciation was considered the standard in prescriptive pronunciation guides though, however, German was the language of commerce and government in the Habsburg Empire, which encompassed a large area of Central and Eastern Europe. Until the midth century, it was essentially the language of townspeople throughout most of the Empire and its use indicated that the speaker was a merchant or someone from an urban area, regardless of nationality. Some cities, such as Prague and Budapest, were gradually Germanized in the years after their incorporation into the Habsburg domain, others, such as Pozsony, were originally settled during the Habsburg period, and were primarily German at that time. This dictionary was created by the Brothers Grimm and is composed of 16 parts which were issued between and , in , grammatical and orthographic rules first appeared in the Duden Handbook. In , the 2nd Orthographical Conference ended with a standardization of the German language in its written form. While cane sugar does not need refining to be palatable, sugar from sugar beet is almost always refined to remove the strong, almost always unwanted, the refined sugar produced is more than 99 percent pure sucrose. Whereas many sugar mills only operate during a time of the year during the cane harvesting period. Sugar beet refineries tend to have periods when they process beet but may store intermediate product. Raw sugar is processed into white refined sugar in local refineries. Sugar refineries are located in heavy sugar-consuming regions such as North America, Europe. Since the s many state-of-the art sugar refineries have been built in the Middle East and North Africa region, e. The raw sugar is stored in warehouses and then transported into the sugar refinery by means of transport belts. Many sugar refineries today buy high pol sugar and can do without the affination process, the remaining sugar is then dissolved to make a syrup, which is clarified by the addition of phosphoric acid and calcium hydroxide that combine to precipitate calcium phosphate. The calcium phosphate particles entrap some impurities and absorb others, and then float to the top of the tank, after any remaining solids are filtered out, the clarified syrup is decolorized by filtration through a bed of activated carbon or, in more modern plants, ion-exchange resin. The purified syrup is concentrated to supersaturation and repeatedly crystallized under vacuum to produce white refined sugar. As in a mill, the sugar crystals are separated from the mother liquor by centrifuging. To produce granulated sugar, in which the individual grains do not clump together. Drying is accomplished first by drying the sugar in a hot rotary dryer, the finished product is stored in large concrete or steel silos. It is shipped in bulk, big bags or 25 —50 kg bags to customers or packed in consumer-size packages to retailers. The dried sugar must be handled with caution, as sugar dust explosions are possible, a sugar dust explosion which led to 13 fatalities was the Georgia sugar refinery explosion in Port Wentworth, GA. Molasses Bagasse Press Mud As in many other industries factory automation has been promoted heavily in sugar refineries in recent decades, the production process is generally controlled by a central process control system, which directly controls most of the machines and components. Only for certain special machines such as the centrifuges in the sugar house decentralized PLCs are used for security reasons. Цукор — Sugar is the generic name for sweet, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. There are various types of derived from different sources. Simple sugars are called monosaccharides and include glucose, fructose, the table sugar or granulated sugar most customarily used as food is sucrose, a disaccharide of glucose and fructose. Sugar is used in prepared foods and it is added to some foods, in the body, sucrose is hydrolysed into the simple sugars fructose and glucose. Other disaccharides include maltose from malted grain, and lactose from milk, longer chains of sugars are called oligosaccharides or polysaccharides. Some other chemical substances, such as glycerol may also have a sweet taste, low-calorie food substitutes for sugar, described as artificial sweeteners, include aspartame and sucralose, a chlorinated derivative of sucrose. Sugars are found in the tissues of most plants and are present in sufficient concentrations for efficient commercial extraction in sugarcane, the world production of sugar in was about million tonnes. The average person consumes about 24 kilograms of sugar each year, equivalent to over food calories per person, since the latter part of the twentieth century, it has been questioned whether a diet high in sugars, especially refined sugars, is good for human health. Sugar has been linked to obesity, and suspected of, or fully implicated as a cause in the occurrence of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, dementia, macular degeneration, the etymology reflects the spread of the commodity. Sugar has been produced in the Indian subcontinent since ancient times and it was not plentiful or cheap in early times and honey was more often used for sweetening in most parts of the world. Originally, people chewed raw sugarcane to extract its sweetness, sugarcane was a native of tropical South Asia and Southeast Asia. Different species seem to have originated from different locations with Saccharum barberi originating in India and S. Sugar was found in Europe by the 1st century AD, but only as an imported medicine and it is a kind of honey found in cane, white as gum, and it crunches between the teeth. It comes in lumps the size of a hazelnut, sugar is used only for medical purposes. Sugar remained relatively unimportant until the Indians discovered methods of turning sugarcane juice into granulated crystals that were easier to store, crystallized sugar was discovered by the time of the Imperial Guptas, around the 5th century AD. In , the 2nd Orthographical Conference ended with a standardization of the German language in its written form 4. Only for certain special machines such as the centrifuges in the sugar house decentralized PLCs are used for security reasons 5.