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Trieste is located at the head of the Gulf of Trieste and throughout history it has been influenced by its location at the crossroads of Latin , Slavic , and Germanic cultures. In , it had a population of about , \\\\\\\\\\\[3\\\\\\\\\\\] and it is the capital of the autonomous region Friuli-Venezia Giulia. The metropolitan population of Trieste is ,, with the city comprising about , inhabitants. Trieste was one of the oldest parts of the Habsburg Monarchy , belonging to it from until In the 19th century the monarchy was one of the Great Powers of Europe and Trieste was its most important seaport. As a prosperous seaport in the Mediterranean region, Trieste became the fourth largest city of the Austro-Hungarian Empire after Vienna , Budapest , and Prague. Trieste underwent an economic revival during the s, and Trieste was an important spot in the struggle between the Eastern and Western blocs after the Second World War. Trieste lies in the northernmost part of the high Adriatic in northeastern Italy, near the border with Slovenia. The city lies on the Gulf of Trieste. The karst landforms close to the city reach an elevation of metres 1, feet above sea level. It lies on the borders of the Italian geographical region, the Balkan Peninsula , and the Mitteleuropa. The territory of Trieste is composed of several different climate zones depending on the distance from the sea and elevation. Snow occurs on average 0 — 2 days per year. The absolute maximum of the last 30 years is The Trieste area is divided into 8a—10a zones according to USDA hardiness zoning; Villa Opicina to MSL with 8a in upper suburban area down to 10a in especially shielded and windproof valleys close to the Adriatic sea. Since the second millennium BC, the location was an inhabited site. Originally an Illyrian settlement, the Veneti entered the region in the 10th—9th c. Oderzo whose ancient name was Opitergium. Roman Tergeste flourished due to its position on the road from Aquileia , the main Roman city in the area, to Istria , and as a port, some ruins of which are still visible. Emperor Augustus built a line of walls around the city in 33—32 BC, while Trajan built a theatre in the 2nd century. At the same time, the citizens of the town were enrolled in the tribe Pupinia. In the early Christian era Trieste continued to flourish. Between AD and , its territory was enlarged and nearby Carni and Catali were granted Roman citizenship by the Roman Senate and Emperor Antoninus Pius at the pleading of a leading Tergestine citizen, the quaestor urbanus , Fabius Severus. Despite the deposition of Romulus Augustulus at Ravenna in and the ascension to power of Odoacer in Italy, Trieste was retained for a time by the Roman Emperor seated at Constantinople , and thus became a Byzantine military outpost. From the city came loosely under the Patriarchate of Aquileia , developing into a free commune by the end of the 12th century. During the 13th and 14th centuries, Trieste became a maritime trade rival to the Republic of Venice which briefly occupied it in —87, before coming under the patronage of the Patriarchate of Aquileia. After it committed a perceived offence against Venice, the Venetian State declared war against Trieste in July and by November had occupied the city. Venice intended to keep the city and began rebuilding its defenses, but was forced to leave in The agreement of voluntary submission dedizione was signed at the castle of Graz on 30 September The city maintained a high degree of autonomy under the Habsburgs, but was increasingly losing ground as a trade hub, both at the expense of Venice and Ragusa. In , a number of Istrian communities petitioned Venice to attack Trieste. Trieste was saved from utter ruin by the intervention of Pope Pius II who had previously been bishop of Trieste. His sack of the city is remembered as the 'Destruction of Trieste. Following an unsuccessful Habsburg invasion of Venice in the prelude to the —16 War of the League of Cambrai , the Venetians occupied Trieste again in , and were allowed to keep the city under the terms of the peace treaty. However, the Habsburg Empire recovered Trieste a little over one year later, when the conflict resumed. By the 18th century Trieste became an important port and commercial hub for the Austrians. In , it was granted status as a free port within the Habsburg Empire by Emperor Charles VI , and remained a free port until 1 July The reign of his successor, Maria Theresa of Austria , marked the beginning of a very prosperous era for the city. In the following decades, Trieste was briefly occupied by troops of the French Empire during the Napoleonic Wars on several occasions, in , and From to , Trieste was annexed into Illyrian Provinces , interrupting its status of free port and losing its autonomy. The municipal autonomy was not restored after the return of the city to the Austrian Empire in Following the Napoleonic Wars, Trieste continued to prosper as the Free Imperial City of Trieste German : Reichsunmittelbare Stadt Triest , a status that granted economic freedom, but limited its political self-government. In the later part of the 19th century, Pope Leo XIII considered moving his residence to Trieste or Salzburg because of what he considered a hostile anti-Catholic climate in Italy following the Capture of Rome by the newly established Kingdom of Italy. However, Emperor Franz Joseph rejected the idea. The construction of the first major trunk railway in the Empire, the Vienna-Trieste Austrian Southern Railway , was completed in , a valuable asset for trade and the supply of coal. Oberdan was caught, convicted, and executed. He was regarded as a martyr by radical Irredentists, but as a cowardly villain by the supporters of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy. Franz Joseph, who reigned another thirty-five years, never visited Trieste again. The city was the major port on the Austrian Riviera , and perhaps the only real enclave of Mitteleuropa i. Viennese architecture and coffeehouses dominate the streets of Trieste to this day. Italy, in return for entering World War I on the side of the Allied Powers , had been promised substantial territorial gains, which included the former Austrian Littoral and western Inner Carniola. Italy therefore annexed the city of Trieste at the end of the war, in accordance with the provisions of the Treaty of London and the Italian-Yugoslav Treaty of Rapallo. While only a few thousands Italians remained in the newly established South Slavic \\\\\\\\\\\[i\\\\\\\\\\\] state, a population of half a million Slavs, \\\\\\\\\\\[18\\\\\\\\\\\] including the annexed Slovenes , were cut off from the remaining three-quarters of total Slovene population at the time and were subjected to forced Italianization. In , claiming that it was restoring surnames to their original Italian form, the Italian government announced the Italianization of German, Slovene and Croatian surnames. Several thousand ethnic Italians from Dalmatia also moved to Trieste from the newly-created Yugoslavia. In the late s, resistance began with the Slovene militant anti-fascist organization TIGR , which carried out several bomb attacks in the city centre. In and , two trials of Slovene activists were held in Trieste by the fascist Special Tribunal for the Security of the State. The economy improved in the late s, and several large infrastructure projects were carried out. In the same period, Trieste consolidated its role as one of the centres of modern Italian literature , with authors such as Umberto Saba , Biagio Marin , Giani Stuparich , and Salvatore Satta. Some non-Italian intellectuals remained in the city, such as the Austrian author Julius Kugy , the Slovene writer and poet Stanko Vuk , the lawyer and human rights activist Josip Ferfolja and the anti-fascist clergyman Jakob Ukmar. The fascist anti-semitic campaign resulted in a series of attacks on Jewish property and individuals, culminating in July when the Synagogue of Trieste was raided and devastated by the Fascist Squads and the mob. With the annexation of the Province of Ljubljana by Italy and the subsequent deportation of 25, Slovenes, which equaled 7. Following the trisection of Slovenia, starting from the winter of , the first Slovene Partisans appeared in Trieste province, although the resistance movement did not become active in the city itself until late After the Italian armistice in September , the city was occupied by Wehrmacht troops. Trieste became nominally part of the newly constituted Italian Social Republic , but it was de facto ruled by Germany , who created the Operation Zone of the Adriatic Littoral out of former Italian north-eastern regions, with Trieste as the administrative centre. The new administrative entity was headed by Friedrich Rainer. Under German occupation, the only concentration camp with a crematorium on Italian soil was built in a suburb of Trieste, at the Risiera di San Sabba on 4 April About 5, South Slavs , Italian anti-Fascists and Jews died at the Risiera , while thousands more were imprisoned before being transferred to other concentration camps. The city saw intense Italian and Yugoslav partisan activity and suffered from Allied bombings. The Yugoslavs had a reputation for shooting German and Italian prisoners. The Yugoslavs held full control of the city until 12 June, a period known in Italian historiography as the 'forty days of Trieste'. It is to prevent such actions that we have been fighting this war. In , Trieste was declared an independent city state under the protection of the United Nations as the Free Territory of Trieste. The territory was divided into two zones, A and B, along the Morgan Line established in Zone A covered almost the same area of the current Italian Province of Trieste, except for four small villages south of Muggia see below , which were given to Yugoslavia after the dissolution see London Memorandum of of the Free Territory in The final border line with Yugoslavia and the status of the ethnic minorities in the areas was settled bilaterally in with the Treaty of Osimo. This line now constitutes the border between Italy and Slovenia. During the Austro-Hungarian era, Trieste became a leading European city in economy , trade and commerce , and was the fourth-largest and most important centre in the empire, after Vienna, Budapest and Prague. But Fascist Italy promoted a huge development of Trieste in the s, with new manufacturing activities related even to naval and armament industries like the famous 'Cantieri Aeronautici Navali Triestini CANT '. As a consequence, Trieste was a mainly peripheral city during the Cold War. However, since the s, Trieste has experienced a certain economic revival. The city is part of the Corridor 5 project to establish closer transport connections between Western and Eastern Europe, via countries such as Slovenia, Croatia , Hungary , Ukraine and Bosnia. The thriving coffee industry in Trieste began under Austria-Hungary , with the Austro-Hungarian government even awarding tax-free status to the city in order to encourage more commerce. As a result, present-day Trieste boasts many cafes, and is still known to this day as 'the coffee capital of Italy'. Companies active in the coffee sector have given birth to the Trieste Coffee Cluster as their main umbrella organization, but also as an economic actor in its own right. As of \\\\\\\\\\\[update\\\\\\\\\\\] there were , people residing in Trieste, located in the province of Trieste, Friuli-Venezia Giulia , of whom Minors children aged 18 and younger totalled This compares with the Italian average of The average age of Trieste residents is 46 compared to the Italian average of In the five years between and , the population of Trieste declined by 3. However, in the last two years the city has shown signs of stabilizing thanks to growing immigration fluxes. The crude birth rate in Trieste is only 7. In , Trieste was the 4th largest city in the Austro-Hungarian Empire 3rd largest in the Austrian part of the Monarchy. In , Trieste was the 8th largest city in the country, \\\\\\\\\\\[43\\\\\\\\\\\] in the 12th largest, \\\\\\\\\\\[44\\\\\\\\\\\] in the 14th largest, \\\\\\\\\\\[45\\\\\\\\\\\] while in it dropped to the 15th place. The largest autochthonous minority are Slovenes , Serbs \\\\\\\\\\\[46\\\\\\\\\\\] and Croats , but there is also a large immigrant group from Balkan nations particularly nearby Bosnia and Herzegovina , Albania and Romania : 4. Serbian community consists of both autochthonous \\\\\\\\\\\[47\\\\\\\\\\\] and immigrant groups. The particular Friulian dialect , called Tergestino , spoken until the beginning of the 19th century, was gradually overcome by the Triestine dialect of Venetian a language deriving directly from Vulgar Latin and other languages, including standard Italian , Slovene , and German. While Triestine and Italian were spoken by the largest part of the population, German was the language of the Austrian bureaucracy and Slovene was predominantly spoken in the surrounding villages. According to the census, the proportion of Slovene speakers amounted to They were the largest linguistic group in 10 of the 19 urban neighbourhoods, and represented the majority in 7 of them including all 6 in the city centre. Of the 11 villages included within the city limits, the Slovene speakers had an overwhelming majority in 10, and the German speakers in one Miramare. This dialect and the official Italian language are spoken in the city, while Slovene is spoken in some of the immediate suburbs. The Castello Miramare , or Miramare Castle, on the waterfront 8 kilometres 5 miles from Trieste, was built between and from a project by Carl Junker working under Archduke Maximilian. The Castle gardens provide a setting of beauty with a variety of trees, chosen by and planted on the orders of Maximilian, that today make a remarkable collection \\\\\\\\\\\[ citation needed \\\\\\\\\\\]. Features of particular attraction in the gardens include two ponds, one noted for its swans and the other for lotus flowers, the Castle annexe 'Castelletto' , a bronze statue of Maximilian, and a small chapel where is kept a cross made from the remains of the 'Novara', the flagship on which Maximilian, brother of Emperor Franz Josef , set sail to become Emperor of Mexico. The Castel San Giusto , or Castle of San Giusto, was designed on the remains of previous castles on the site, and took almost two centuries to build. The Roman theatre lies at the foot of the San Giusto hill, facing the sea. The construction partially exploits the gentle slope of the hill, and much of the theatre is made of stone. The topmost portion of the steps and the stage were supposedly made of wood. The statues that adorned the theatre, brought to light in the s, are now preserved at the town museum. Three inscriptions from the Trajanic period mention a certain Q. Petronius Modestus, someone closely connected to the development of the theatre, which was erected during the second half of the 1st century. In the entire Province of Trieste , there are 10 speleological groups out of 24 in the whole Friuli-Venezia Giulia region. Trieste has a lively cultural scene with various theatres. The Slovenska gospodarsko-kulturna zveza — Unione Economica-Culturale Slovena is the umbrella organization bringing together cultural and economic associations belonging to the Slovene minority. The University of Trieste , founded in , is a medium-size state-supported institution with 12 faculties, and boasts a wide and almost complete range of courses. It currently has about 23, students enrolled and 1, professors. There are three international schools offering primary and secondary education programs in English in the greater metropolitan area: the International School of Trieste, the European School of Trieste, and the United World College of the Adriatic. The city also hosts numerous national and international scientific research institutions. The local calcio football club in Trieste is Triestina , one of the oldest clubs in Italy. Trieste is notable for having had two football clubs participating in the championships of two different nations at the same time during the period of the Free Territory of Trieste , due to the schism within the city and region created by the post-war demarcation. Triestina played in the Italian first division Serie A. Although it faced relegation after the first season after the Second World War, the FIGC changed the rules to keep it in, as it was seen as important to keep a club of the city in the Italian league, while Yugoslavia had its eye on the city. In the championship of next season the club played its best season with a 3rd-place finish. Meanwhile, Yugoslavia bought A. Ponziana , a small team in Trieste, which under a new name, Amatori Ponziana Trst , played in the Yugoslavian league for 3 years. Ponziana was renamed as ' Circolo Sportivo Ponziana ' and currently plays in Friuli-Venezia Giulia Group of Promozione , which is the 7th level of the Italian league. Local sporting facilities include the Stadio Nereo Rocco , a UEFA -certified stadium with seating capacity of 32,; the Palatrieste , an indoor sporting arena sitting 7, people, and Piscina Bruno Bianchi, a large olympic size swimming pool. Trieste has been portrayed on screen a number of times, with films often shot on location in the area. In the early neorealist Alfa Tau! Cinematic interest in Trieste peaked during the height of the 'Free Territory' era between and with international films such as Sleeping Car to Trieste and Diplomatic Courier portraying it as a hotbed of espionage. These films, and the later The Yellow Rolls-Royce conveyed an impression of the city as a cosmopolitan place of conflict between Great Powers , a portrayal which resembled that of Casablanca Italian filmmakers, by contrast, portrayed Trieste as unquestionably Italian in a series of patriotic films including Trieste mia! The city hosted in the first International Festival of Science Fiction Film Festival internazionale del film di fantascienza , which ran until In the 19th century, a new port district known as the Porto Nuovo was built northeast to the city centre. There is significant commercial shipping to the container terminal, steel works and oil terminal, all located to the south of the city centre. Railways came early to Trieste, due to the importance of its port and the need to transport people and goods inland. It approaches Trieste through the village of Villa Opicina , a few kilometres from the big city but over metres feet higher in elevation. Due to this, the line takes a 32 kilometres 20 miles detour to the north, gradually descending before terminating at the Trieste Centrale railway station. The two stations were connected by a railway line that in the initial plans had to be an interim solution: the Rive railway German: Rive-Bahn , but which survived until , when it was replaced by the Galleria di Circonvallazione , a 5. This railway also approached Trieste via Villa Opicina, but it took a rather shorter loop southwards towards the sea front. Freight services from the dock area include container services to northern Italy and to Budapest, Hungary , together with rolling highway services to Salzburg, Austria and Frankfurt, Germany. The Mestre railway hub offers further connecting options with high-speed trains to Rome and Milan. Passenger trains also run between Villa Opicina and Ljubljana. The airport serves domestic and international destinations and is fully connected to the national railway and highway networks. The Trieste Airport railway station links the passenger terminal directly to the Venice—Trieste railway thanks to a meter long skybridge. A 16 platform bus terminal, a multistorey car park with lots and a car park with lots give public and private motor vehicles rapid access to the A4 Trieste-Turin highway. Local public transport is operated by Trieste Trasporti , which operates a network of around 60 bus routes and two boat services. They also operate the Opicina Tramway , a hybrid between a tramway and funicular railway , providing a more direct link between the city centre and Opicina. The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Trieste e Gorizia, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 49 min. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 4. Trieste is twinned with:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the asteroid, see Tergeste. For other uses, see Trieste disambiguation. Comune in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy. Coat of arms. Location of Trieste. See also: Names of Trieste in different languages. Main articles: History of Trieste and Timeline of Trieste. See also: Imperial Free City of Trieste. See also: Battles of the Isonzo and Julian March. Main article: Free Territory of Trieste. See also: Port of Trieste. See also: Trieste Centrale railway station. Main article: List of people from Trieste. See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Italy. Italy portal. Retrieved 16 March Province: Trieste'. National Institute of Statistics Italy. Retrieved 27 January Collins English Dictionary. Retrieved September 21, Oxford University Press. Retrieved August 1, An introduction to the Indo-European languages. SIU Press. Retrieved 6 December A ghost in Trieste. University of Chicago Press. Schriften zur slavischen Altertumskunde und Namenkunde. In Kommission bei O. AmbiWeb GmbH. Retrieved 11 December Rivista Ligure in Italian. Retrieved 28 June The Trieste Times. Archived from the original on 4 March Retrieved 20 May Dezember , vol. Vienna: K. Hof- und Staatsdruckerei. Historisches Jahrbuch der Stadt Graz in German. Retrieved 6 May Morris; B. Fascism, baptiser and scorcher O Talijanskoj upravi u Istri i Dalmaciji — Zagreb: Dom i svijet. Europa Edizioni. Archived from the original on Retrieved Refugees in the Age of Total War. Unwin Hyman. Retrieved 29 December University of Toronto Press. Between War and Peace. The Race for Trieste. London: W. Retrieved 21 June Archived from the original on 6 March Retrieved 16 September Archived from the original on 23 January Jason Cowley. Retrieved 1 January Oesterreichisch-Illyrisches Kuestenland. Wien, , Verlag der K. Lonely Planet. American Journal of Archaeology. Harper Perennial. A City in Search of an Author. Bloomsbury Publishing, Platform 5 Publishing Ltd. Alessandro Tuzza. Retrieved 17 December Oberegger, Elmar. Archived from the original on 23 July Retrieved 7 March Retrieved April 27, Global Public Transit Index by Moovit. Retrieved June 19, Material was copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4. Spyridon Church. Regional capitals of Italy. Cities in Italy by population. Rome Milan. Naples Turin Palermo Genoa. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons Wikivoyage. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Flag Coat of arms. Friuli-Venezia Giulia. Roberto Dipiazza FI. Official website. ISTAT \\\\\\\\\\\[42\\\\\\\\\\\]. Bosnia and Hercegovina.

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Trieste is located at the head of the Gulf of Trieste and throughout history it has been influenced by its location at the crossroads of Latin , Slavic , and Germanic cultures. In , it had a population of about , \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\[3\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\] and it is the capital of the autonomous region Friuli-Venezia Giulia. The metropolitan population of Trieste is ,, with the city comprising about , inhabitants. Trieste was one of the oldest parts of the Habsburg Monarchy , belonging to it from until In the 19th century the monarchy was one of the Great Powers of Europe and Trieste was its most important seaport. As a prosperous seaport in the Mediterranean region, Trieste became the fourth largest city of the Austro-Hungarian Empire after Vienna , Budapest , and Prague. Trieste underwent an economic revival during the s, and Trieste was an important spot in the struggle between the Eastern and Western blocs after the Second World War. Trieste lies in the northernmost part of the high Adriatic in northeastern Italy, near the border with Slovenia. The city lies on the Gulf of Trieste. The karst landforms close to the city reach an elevation of metres 1, feet above sea level. It lies on the borders of the Italian geographical region, the Balkan Peninsula , and the Mitteleuropa. The territory of Trieste is composed of several different climate zones depending on the distance from the sea and elevation. Snow occurs on average 0 — 2 days per year. The absolute maximum of the last 30 years is The Trieste area is divided into 8a—10a zones according to USDA hardiness zoning; Villa Opicina to MSL with 8a in upper suburban area down to 10a in especially shielded and windproof valleys close to the Adriatic sea. Since the second millennium BC, the location was an inhabited site. Originally an Illyrian settlement, the Veneti entered the region in the 10th—9th c. Oderzo whose ancient name was Opitergium. Roman Tergeste flourished due to its position on the road from Aquileia , the main Roman city in the area, to Istria , and as a port, some ruins of which are still visible. Emperor Augustus built a line of walls around the city in 33—32 BC, while Trajan built a theatre in the 2nd century. At the same time, the citizens of the town were enrolled in the tribe Pupinia. In the early Christian era Trieste continued to flourish. Between AD and , its territory was enlarged and nearby Carni and Catali were granted Roman citizenship by the Roman Senate and Emperor Antoninus Pius at the pleading of a leading Tergestine citizen, the quaestor urbanus , Fabius Severus. Despite the deposition of Romulus Augustulus at Ravenna in and the ascension to power of Odoacer in Italy, Trieste was retained for a time by the Roman Emperor seated at Constantinople , and thus became a Byzantine military outpost. From the city came loosely under the Patriarchate of Aquileia , developing into a free commune by the end of the 12th century. During the 13th and 14th centuries, Trieste became a maritime trade rival to the Republic of Venice which briefly occupied it in —87, before coming under the patronage of the Patriarchate of Aquileia. After it committed a perceived offence against Venice, the Venetian State declared war against Trieste in July and by November had occupied the city. Venice intended to keep the city and began rebuilding its defenses, but was forced to leave in The agreement of voluntary submission dedizione was signed at the castle of Graz on 30 September The city maintained a high degree of autonomy under the Habsburgs, but was increasingly losing ground as a trade hub, both at the expense of Venice and Ragusa. In , a number of Istrian communities petitioned Venice to attack Trieste. Trieste was saved from utter ruin by the intervention of Pope Pius II who had previously been bishop of Trieste. His sack of the city is remembered as the 'Destruction of Trieste. Following an unsuccessful Habsburg invasion of Venice in the prelude to the —16 War of the League of Cambrai , the Venetians occupied Trieste again in , and were allowed to keep the city under the terms of the peace treaty. However, the Habsburg Empire recovered Trieste a little over one year later, when the conflict resumed. By the 18th century Trieste became an important port and commercial hub for the Austrians. In , it was granted status as a free port within the Habsburg Empire by Emperor Charles VI , and remained a free port until 1 July The reign of his successor, Maria Theresa of Austria , marked the beginning of a very prosperous era for the city. In the following decades, Trieste was briefly occupied by troops of the French Empire during the Napoleonic Wars on several occasions, in , and From to , Trieste was annexed into Illyrian Provinces , interrupting its status of free port and losing its autonomy. The municipal autonomy was not restored after the return of the city to the Austrian Empire in Following the Napoleonic Wars, Trieste continued to prosper as the Free Imperial City of Trieste German : Reichsunmittelbare Stadt Triest , a status that granted economic freedom, but limited its political self-government. In the later part of the 19th century, Pope Leo XIII considered moving his residence to Trieste or Salzburg because of what he considered a hostile anti-Catholic climate in Italy following the Capture of Rome by the newly established Kingdom of Italy. However, Emperor Franz Joseph rejected the idea. The construction of the first major trunk railway in the Empire, the Vienna-Trieste Austrian Southern Railway , was completed in , a valuable asset for trade and the supply of coal. Oberdan was caught, convicted, and executed. He was regarded as a martyr by radical Irredentists, but as a cowardly villain by the supporters of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy. Franz Joseph, who reigned another thirty-five years, never visited Trieste again. The city was the major port on the Austrian Riviera , and perhaps the only real enclave of Mitteleuropa i. Viennese architecture and coffeehouses dominate the streets of Trieste to this day. Italy, in return for entering World War I on the side of the Allied Powers , had been promised substantial territorial gains, which included the former Austrian Littoral and western Inner Carniola. Italy therefore annexed the city of Trieste at the end of the war, in accordance with the provisions of the Treaty of London and the Italian-Yugoslav Treaty of Rapallo. While only a few thousands Italians remained in the newly established South Slavic \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\[i\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\] state, a population of half a million Slavs, \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\[18\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\] including the annexed Slovenes , were cut off from the remaining three-quarters of total Slovene population at the time and were subjected to forced Italianization. In , claiming that it was restoring surnames to their original Italian form, the Italian government announced the Italianization of German, Slovene and Croatian surnames. Several thousand ethnic Italians from Dalmatia also moved to Trieste from the newly-created Yugoslavia. In the late s, resistance began with the Slovene militant anti-fascist organization TIGR , which carried out several bomb attacks in the city centre. In and , two trials of Slovene activists were held in Trieste by the fascist Special Tribunal for the Security of the State. The economy improved in the late s, and several large infrastructure projects were carried out. In the same period, Trieste consolidated its role as one of the centres of modern Italian literature , with authors such as Umberto Saba , Biagio Marin , Giani Stuparich , and Salvatore Satta. Some non-Italian intellectuals remained in the city, such as the Austrian author Julius Kugy , the Slovene writer and poet Stanko Vuk , the lawyer and human rights activist Josip Ferfolja and the anti-fascist clergyman Jakob Ukmar. The fascist anti-semitic campaign resulted in a series of attacks on Jewish property and individuals, culminating in July when the Synagogue of Trieste was raided and devastated by the Fascist Squads and the mob. With the annexation of the Province of Ljubljana by Italy and the subsequent deportation of 25, Slovenes, which equaled 7. Following the trisection of Slovenia, starting from the winter of , the first Slovene Partisans appeared in Trieste province, although the resistance movement did not become active in the city itself until late After the Italian armistice in September , the city was occupied by Wehrmacht troops. Trieste became nominally part of the newly constituted Italian Social Republic , but it was de facto ruled by Germany , who created the Operation Zone of the Adriatic Littoral out of former Italian north-eastern regions, with Trieste as the administrative centre. The new administrative entity was headed by Friedrich Rainer. Under German occupation, the only concentration camp with a crematorium on Italian soil was built in a suburb of Trieste, at the Risiera di San Sabba on 4 April About 5, South Slavs , Italian anti-Fascists and Jews died at the Risiera , while thousands more were imprisoned before being transferred to other concentration camps. The city saw intense Italian and Yugoslav partisan activity and suffered from Allied bombings. The Yugoslavs had a reputation for shooting German and Italian prisoners. The Yugoslavs held full control of the city until 12 June, a period known in Italian historiography as the 'forty days of Trieste'. It is to prevent such actions that we have been fighting this war. In , Trieste was declared an independent city state under the protection of the United Nations as the Free Territory of Trieste. The territory was divided into two zones, A and B, along the Morgan Line established in Zone A covered almost the same area of the current Italian Province of Trieste, except for four small villages south of Muggia see below , which were given to Yugoslavia after the dissolution see London Memorandum of of the Free Territory in The final border line with Yugoslavia and the status of the ethnic minorities in the areas was settled bilaterally in with the Treaty of Osimo. This line now constitutes the border between Italy and Slovenia. During the Austro-Hungarian era, Trieste became a leading European city in economy , trade and commerce , and was the fourth-largest and most important centre in the empire, after Vienna, Budapest and Prague. But Fascist Italy promoted a huge development of Trieste in the s, with new manufacturing activities related even to naval and armament industries like the famous 'Cantieri Aeronautici Navali Triestini CANT '. As a consequence, Trieste was a mainly peripheral city during the Cold War. However, since the s, Trieste has experienced a certain economic revival. The city is part of the Corridor 5 project to establish closer transport connections between Western and Eastern Europe, via countries such as Slovenia, Croatia , Hungary , Ukraine and Bosnia. The thriving coffee industry in Trieste began under Austria-Hungary , with the Austro-Hungarian government even awarding tax-free status to the city in order to encourage more commerce. As a result, present-day Trieste boasts many cafes, and is still known to this day as 'the coffee capital of Italy'. Companies active in the coffee sector have given birth to the Trieste Coffee Cluster as their main umbrella organization, but also as an economic actor in its own right. As of \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\[update\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\] there were , people residing in Trieste, located in the province of Trieste, Friuli-Venezia Giulia , of whom Minors children aged 18 and younger totalled This compares with the Italian average of The average age of Trieste residents is 46 compared to the Italian average of In the five years between and , the population of Trieste declined by 3. However, in the last two years the city has shown signs of stabilizing thanks to growing immigration fluxes. The crude birth rate in Trieste is only 7. In , Trieste was the 4th largest city in the Austro-Hungarian Empire 3rd largest in the Austrian part of the Monarchy. In , Trieste was the 8th largest city in the country, \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\[43\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\] in the 12th largest, \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\[44\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\] in the 14th largest, \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\[45\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\] while in it dropped to the 15th place. The largest autochthonous minority are Slovenes , Serbs \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\[46\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\] and Croats , but there is also a large immigrant group from Balkan nations particularly nearby Bosnia and Herzegovina , Albania and Romania : 4. Serbian community consists of both autochthonous \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\[47\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\] and immigrant groups. The particular Friulian dialect , called Tergestino , spoken until the beginning of the 19th century, was gradually overcome by the Triestine dialect of Venetian a language deriving directly from Vulgar Latin and other languages, including standard Italian , Slovene , and German. While Triestine and Italian were spoken by the largest part of the population, German was the language of the Austrian bureaucracy and Slovene was predominantly spoken in the surrounding villages. According to the census, the proportion of Slovene speakers amounted to They were the largest linguistic group in 10 of the 19 urban neighbourhoods, and represented the majority in 7 of them including all 6 in the city centre. Of the 11 villages included within the city limits, the Slovene speakers had an overwhelming majority in 10, and the German speakers in one Miramare. This dialect and the official Italian language are spoken in the city, while Slovene is spoken in some of the immediate suburbs. The Castello Miramare , or Miramare Castle, on the waterfront 8 kilometres 5 miles from Trieste, was built between and from a project by Carl Junker working under Archduke Maximilian. The Castle gardens provide a setting of beauty with a variety of trees, chosen by and planted on the orders of Maximilian, that today make a remarkable collection \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\[ citation needed \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\]. Features of particular attraction in the gardens include two ponds, one noted for its swans and the other for lotus flowers, the Castle annexe 'Castelletto' , a bronze statue of Maximilian, and a small chapel where is kept a cross made from the remains of the 'Novara', the flagship on which Maximilian, brother of Emperor Franz Josef , set sail to become Emperor of Mexico. The Castel San Giusto , or Castle of San Giusto, was designed on the remains of previous castles on the site, and took almost two centuries to build. The Roman theatre lies at the foot of the San Giusto hill, facing the sea. The construction partially exploits the gentle slope of the hill, and much of the theatre is made of stone. The topmost portion of the steps and the stage were supposedly made of wood. The statues that adorned the theatre, brought to light in the s, are now preserved at the town museum. Three inscriptions from the Trajanic period mention a certain Q. Petronius Modestus, someone closely connected to the development of the theatre, which was erected during the second half of the 1st century. In the entire Province of Trieste , there are 10 speleological groups out of 24 in the whole Friuli-Venezia Giulia region. Trieste has a lively cultural scene with various theatres. The Slovenska gospodarsko-kulturna zveza — Unione Economica-Culturale Slovena is the umbrella organization bringing together cultural and economic associations belonging to the Slovene minority. The University of Trieste , founded in , is a medium-size state-supported institution with 12 faculties, and boasts a wide and almost complete range of courses. It currently has about 23, students enrolled and 1, professors. There are three international schools offering primary and secondary education programs in English in the greater metropolitan area: the International School of Trieste, the European School of Trieste, and the United World College of the Adriatic. The city also hosts numerous national and international scientific research institutions. The local calcio football club in Trieste is Triestina , one of the oldest clubs in Italy. Trieste is notable for having had two football clubs participating in the championships of two different nations at the same time during the period of the Free Territory of Trieste , due to the schism within the city and region created by the post-war demarcation. Triestina played in the Italian first division Serie A. Although it faced relegation after the first season after the Second World War, the FIGC changed the rules to keep it in, as it was seen as important to keep a club of the city in the Italian league, while Yugoslavia had its eye on the city. In the championship of next season the club played its best season with a 3rd-place finish. Meanwhile, Yugoslavia bought A. Ponziana , a small team in Trieste, which under a new name, Amatori Ponziana Trst , played in the Yugoslavian league for 3 years. Ponziana was renamed as ' Circolo Sportivo Ponziana ' and currently plays in Friuli-Venezia Giulia Group of Promozione , which is the 7th level of the Italian league. Local sporting facilities include the Stadio Nereo Rocco , a UEFA -certified stadium with seating capacity of 32,; the Palatrieste , an indoor sporting arena sitting 7, people, and Piscina Bruno Bianchi, a large olympic size swimming pool. Trieste has been portrayed on screen a number of times, with films often shot on location in the area. In the early neorealist Alfa Tau! Cinematic interest in Trieste peaked during the height of the 'Free Territory' era between and with international films such as Sleeping Car to Trieste and Diplomatic Courier portraying it as a hotbed of espionage. These films, and the later The Yellow Rolls-Royce conveyed an impression of the city as a cosmopolitan place of conflict between Great Powers , a portrayal which resembled that of Casablanca Italian filmmakers, by contrast, portrayed Trieste as unquestionably Italian in a series of patriotic films including Trieste mia! The city hosted in the first International Festival of Science Fiction Film Festival internazionale del film di fantascienza , which ran until In the 19th century, a new port district known as the Porto Nuovo was built northeast to the city centre. There is significant commercial shipping to the container terminal, steel works and oil terminal, all located to the south of the city centre. Railways came early to Trieste, due to the importance of its port and the need to transport people and goods inland. It approaches Trieste through the village of Villa Opicina , a few kilometres from the big city but over metres feet higher in elevation. Due to this, the line takes a 32 kilometres 20 miles detour to the north, gradually descending before terminating at the Trieste Centrale railway station. The two stations were connected by a railway line that in the initial plans had to be an interim solution: the Rive railway German: Rive-Bahn , but which survived until , when it was replaced by the Galleria di Circonvallazione , a 5. This railway also approached Trieste via Villa Opicina, but it took a rather shorter loop southwards towards the sea front. Freight services from the dock area include container services to northern Italy and to Budapest, Hungary , together with rolling highway services to Salzburg, Austria and Frankfurt, Germany. The Mestre railway hub offers further connecting options with high-speed trains to Rome and Milan. Passenger trains also run between Villa Opicina and Ljubljana. The airport serves domestic and international destinations and is fully connected to the national railway and highway networks. The Trieste Airport railway station links the passenger terminal directly to the Venice—Trieste railway thanks to a meter long skybridge. A 16 platform bus terminal, a multistorey car park with lots and a car park with lots give public and private motor vehicles rapid access to the A4 Trieste-Turin highway. Local public transport is operated by Trieste Trasporti , which operates a network of around 60 bus routes and two boat services. They also operate the Opicina Tramway , a hybrid between a tramway and funicular railway , providing a more direct link between the city centre and Opicina. The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Trieste e Gorizia, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 49 min. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 4. Trieste is twinned with:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the asteroid, see Tergeste. For other uses, see Trieste disambiguation. Comune in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy. Coat of arms. Location of Trieste. See also: Names of Trieste in different languages. Main articles: History of Trieste and Timeline of Trieste. See also: Imperial Free City of Trieste. See also: Battles of the Isonzo and Julian March. Main article: Free Territory of Trieste. See also: Port of Trieste. See also: Trieste Centrale railway station. Main article: List of people from Trieste. See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Italy. Italy portal. Retrieved 16 March Province: Trieste'. National Institute of Statistics Italy. Retrieved 27 January Collins English Dictionary. Retrieved September 21, Oxford University Press. Retrieved August 1, An introduction to the Indo-European languages. SIU Press. Retrieved 6 December A ghost in Trieste. University of Chicago Press. Schriften zur slavischen Altertumskunde und Namenkunde. In Kommission bei O. AmbiWeb GmbH. Retrieved 11 December Rivista Ligure in Italian. Retrieved 28 June The Trieste Times. Archived from the original on 4 March Retrieved 20 May Dezember , vol. Vienna: K. Hof- und Staatsdruckerei. Historisches Jahrbuch der Stadt Graz in German. Retrieved 6 May Morris; B. Fascism, baptiser and scorcher O Talijanskoj upravi u Istri i Dalmaciji — Zagreb: Dom i svijet. Europa Edizioni. Archived from the original on Retrieved Refugees in the Age of Total War. Unwin Hyman. Retrieved 29 December University of Toronto Press. Between War and Peace. The Race for Trieste. London: W. Retrieved 21 June Archived from the original on 6 March Retrieved 16 September Archived from the original on 23 January Jason Cowley. Retrieved 1 January Oesterreichisch-Illyrisches Kuestenland. Wien, , Verlag der K. Lonely Planet. American Journal of Archaeology. Harper Perennial. A City in Search of an Author. Bloomsbury Publishing, Platform 5 Publishing Ltd. Alessandro Tuzza. Retrieved 17 December Oberegger, Elmar. Archived from the original on 23 July Retrieved 7 March Retrieved April 27, Global Public Transit Index by Moovit. Retrieved June 19, Material was copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4. Spyridon Church. Regional capitals of Italy. Cities in Italy by population. Rome Milan. Naples Turin Palermo Genoa. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons Wikivoyage. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Flag Coat of arms. Friuli-Venezia Giulia. Roberto Dipiazza FI. Official website. ISTAT \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\[42\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\]. Bosnia and Hercegovina.

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