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Cyclodextrins sometimes called cycloamyloses are a family of compounds made up of sugar molecules bound together in a ring cyclic oligosaccharides. Cyclodextrins are produced from starch by means of enzymatic conversion. They are used in food, pharmaceutical, \\\\\\\\\\\\\\[1\\\\\\\\\\\\\\] drug delivery , \\\\\\\\\\\\\\[2\\\\\\\\\\\\\\] and chemical industries, as well as agriculture and environmental engineering. The 5-membered macrocycle is not natural. Recently, the largest well-characterized cyclodextrin contains 32 1,4-anhydroglucopyranoside units, while as a poorly characterized mixture, at least membered cyclic oligosaccharides are also known. Typical cyclodextrins contain a number of glucose monomers ranging from six to eight units in a ring, creating a cone shape:. Because cyclodextrins are hydrophobic inside and hydrophilic outside, they can form complexes with hydrophobic compounds. Thus they can enhance the solubility and bioavailability of such compounds. Cyclodextrins can also enhance drug permeability through mucosal tissues. Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-cyclodextrin are all generally recognized as safe by the FDA. In the food industry, cyclodextrins are employed for the preparation of cholesterol free products: The EU assessment report confirms that consumption of alpha-cyclodextrin can reduce blood sugar peaks following a high-starch meal. Applications further include the ability to stabilize volatile or unstable compounds and the reduction of unwanted tastes and odour. Beta-cyclodextrin complexes with certain carotenoid food colorants have been shown to intensify color, increase water solubility and improve light stability. The strong ability of complexing fragrances can also be used for another purpose: Such devices are capable of releasing fragrances during ironing or when heated by human body. The heat from a clothes dryer releases the fragrance into the clothing. Cyclodextrins are also used to produce alcohol powder by encapsulating ethanol. The powder produces an alcoholic beverage when mixed with water. Aqueous cyclodextrin solutions can generate aerosols in particle size ranges suitable for pulmonary deposition. Large quantities of aerosol can be nebulized in acceptable nebulization times. The cyclodextrin concentration does not modify nebulization efficiency in the range tested. This was the second time in history that cyclodextrin alone was proposed to treat a fatal disease. In , cyclodextrin was used in a medical case involving a boy suffering from a fatal form of hypervitaminosis A. Typical cyclodextrins are constituted by glucopyranoside units, can be topologically represented as toroids with the larger and the smaller openings of the toroid exposing to the solvent secondary and primary hydroxyl groups respectively. Because of this arrangement, the interior of the toroids is not hydrophobic , but considerably less hydrophilic than the aqueous environment and thus able to host other hydrophobic molecules. In contrast, the exterior is sufficiently hydrophilic to impart cyclodextrins or their complexes water solubility. The formation of the inclusion compounds greatly modifies the physical and chemical properties of the guest molecule, mostly in terms of water solubility. This is the reason why cyclodextrins have attracted much interest in many fields, especially pharmaceutical applications: The production of cyclodextrins is relatively simple and involves treatment of ordinary starch with a set of easily available enzymes. CGTases can synthesize all forms of cyclodextrins, thus the product of the conversion results in a mixture of the three main types of cyclic molecules, in ratios that are strictly dependent on the enzyme used: Purification of the three types of cyclodextrins takes advantage of the different water solubility of the molecules: As an alternative a 'complexing agent' can be added during the enzymatic conversion step: The complex formation drives the conversion of starch towards the synthesis of the precipitated cyclodextrin, thus enriching its content in the final mixture of products. Wacker Chemie AG uses dedicated enzymes, that can produce alpha-, beta- or gamma-cyclodextrin specifically. This is very valuable especially for the food industry, as only alpha- and gamma-cyclodextrin can be consumed without a daily intake limit. Cyclodextrins are able to form host-guest complexes with hydrophobic molecules given the unique nature imparted by their structure. Cyclodextrins can solubilize hydrophobic drugs in pharmaceutical applications, and crosslink to form polymers used for drug delivery. Other than the above-mentioned pharmaceutical applications, cyclodextrins can be employed in environmental protection: This ability of forming complexes with hydrophobic molecules has led to their usage in supramolecular chemistry. In particular they have been used to synthesize certain mechanically interlocked molecular architectures , such as rotaxanes and catenanes , by reacting the ends of the threaded guest. The photodimerization of substituted stilbazoles has been demonstrated using g-cyclodextrin as a host. Based on the photodimer obtained, it is established that the halogen-halogen interactions, which play an interesting role in solid state, can be observed in solution. Existence of such interactions in solution has been proved by selective photodimerization of dichloro substituted stiblazoles in Cyclodextrin and Cucurbiturils. The application of cyclodextrin as supramolecular carrier is also possible in organometallic reactions. The mechanism of action probably takes place in the interfacial region. The application of cyclodextrins as supramolecular carrier is possible in various organometallic catalysis. Cyclodextrins, as they are known today, were called 'cellulosine' when first described by A. These compounds were therefore referred to as 'Schardinger sugars'. For 25 years, between and , Pringsheim in Germany was the leading researcher in this area, demonstrating that cyclodextrins formed stable aqueous complexes with many other chemicals. By the mids, each of the natural cyclodextrins had been structurally and chemically characterized and many more complexes had been studied. Since the s, extensive work has been conducted by Szejtli and others exploring encapsulation by cyclodextrins and their derivatives for industrial and pharmacologic applications. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Typical cyclodextrins contain a number of glucose monomers ranging from six to eight units in a ring, creating a cone shape: Complexation Methods, Stability, and Applications in Food'. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. Raman Spectroscopy and Theoretical Investigation'. The Journal of Physical Chemistry A. PDA journal of pharmaceutical science and technology. International Journal of Pharmaceutics. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. Molecular Dynamics Simulations at Several Temperatures'. The Journal of Physical Chemistry B. Latin American Journal of Pharmacy. Retrieved 24 April Controlling the photodimerization of stilbazolium salts within? Can surface tension measurements explain the efficiency of chemically modified cyclodextrins? Journal of Colloid and Interface Science. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis. Molecular Biology of the Cell. European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. Retrieved from ' https: Polysaccharides Starch Macrocycles Chelating agents. Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from April Views Read Edit View history. This page was last edited on 15 September , at By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

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