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Benzylpiperazine BZP is a recreational drug with euphoric , stimulant properties. The effects produced by BZP are comparable to those produced by amphetamine. Adverse effects have been reported following its use including acute psychosis , renal toxicity, and seizures. It is often claimed that BZP was originally synthesized as a potential antihelminthic anti-parasitic agent for use in farm animals. Even so, the majority of the early work with the piperazines were investigations into their potential use as antihelminthics with the earliest clinical trials in the literature relating to piperazine being articles in the British Medical Journal in the s. It next appears in the literature in the s when it was investigated as a potential antidepressant medication, but rejected when research reported that BZP had amphetamine-like effects and was liable to abuse. In the early s , the United States Drug Enforcement Administration noted the drug was being used recreationally in California. It also reported that BZP was being used as an adulterant in illicit drugs. Since , benzylpiperazine use grew sharply in New Zealand, where there was initially a complete lack of regulation. The New Zealand government attempted to ban the product as of December 18, , but the necessary second reading of the bill did not happen in time for the law to be passed. In early , pills containing the active ingredients BZP and TFMPP began to appear in the city of Vancouver , Canada, where they first gained popularity with late night party-goers as a safer alternative to many of the illicit street drugs commonly available there. In piperazine based party-pill formulations started to become widely available nationwide which has caused concern with local authorities such as Health Canada and subsequently BZP has gained much media attention in At this time no official decision has been made regarding these specific piperazines becoming restricted substances, or if they should be banned altogether in Canada. In the United States, it is still used as an adulterant in ecstasy mimic tablets. BZP is a piperazine derivative which comes as either the hydrochloride salt or a free base. The hydrochloride salt is a white solid while the base form is a slightly yellowish-green liquid. BZP base is corrosive and causes burns. In countries where its purchase is legal, BZP products are often produced in small specialist laboratories. The raw materials can be purchased from various chemical supply agencies and formed into tablets or capsules using relatively cheap production techniques. The resulting product can be marketed at extremely high markup , so end-user prices can be as high as times the bulk cost of raw ingredients. BZP is often marketed ostensibly as a 'dietary supplement' to avoid meeting stricter laws that apply to medicines and drugs, despite the fact that BZP has no dietary value. As of late , the Misuse of Drugs Act ensured it can no longer be classified or marketed as a dietary supplement in New Zealand. BZP has been shown to have a mixed mechanism of action, acting on the serotonergic and dopaminergic receptor systems in a similar fashion to MDMA. BZP also acts as a non-selective serotonin receptor agonist on a wide variety of serotonin receptors; \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\[ 16 \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\] binding to 5HT 2A receptors may explain its mild hallucinogenic effects at high doses, while partial agonist or antagonist effects at the 5HT 2B receptors may explain some of BZPs peripheral side effects, as this receptor is expressed very densely in the gut, and binding to 5HT 3 receptors may explain the common side effect of headaches, as this receptor is known to be involved in the development of migraine headaches. There is still much that is not known about the pharmacokinetics of benzylpiperazine. The effects of BZP are largely similar to amphetamines , \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\[ 19 \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\] with one study finding that former amphetamine addicts were unable to distinguish between dextroamphetamine and BZP administered intravenously. The perception of certain sensations such as taste, colour or music may be subjectively enhanced. The average duration is longer than that of dextroamphetamine, typically lasting 4—6 hours with reports as long as 8 hours depending on the dose. Anecdotal evidence from online sources claim tolerance to the central action of BZP will develop quickly. As with most sympathomimetic stimulants there appear to be significant side effects associated with BZP use. BZP reportedly produces insomnia and a mild to severe hangover after the drug effect wears off, \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\[ 22 \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\] however, some manufacturers in New Zealand have started including recovery pills which contain 5-HTP and vitamins which allegedly ease these hangovers. The major side effects include dilated pupils, blurred vision, dryness of the mouth, extreme alertness, pruritus , confusion , agitation , tremor, extrapyramidal symptoms dystonia , akathisia , headache , dizziness , anxiety, insomnia , vomiting , chest pain , hallucinations , paresthesia , tachycardia , hypertension , palpitations , collapse, hyperventilation , sweating, hyperthermia , and problems with urine retention. The majority of the toxic effects information came from a study conducted between 1 April to 1 September The study recorded all presentations associated with party pill use at the Emergency Department of Christchurch Hospital, New Zealand by recording them on a prospective data collection form. Patients with mild to moderate toxicity experienced symptoms such as insomnia, anxiety, nausea, vomiting, palpitations, dystonia, and urinary retention. Significantly, fourteen toxic seizures were recorded with two patients suffering life-threatening toxicity with status epilepticus and severe respiratory and metabolic acidosis. It was concluded that BZP appears to induce toxic seizures in neurologically normal subjects. According to party pill manufacturer Matt Bowden, over 20 million pills containing BZP have been consumed in New Zealand with no available record attributing deaths or lasting injuries to a single ingestion of BZP. Rodham was put into an induced coma in an effort to prevent him from dying. After many millions of doses consumed worldwide, two deaths have been officially recorded in correlation with the use of BZP, although no causal relationship has been proven. It is uncertain what role the BZP may have had in these deaths. MDMA is thought by some to be a contributing factor to death from hyponatremia; \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\[ 25 \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\] \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\[ 35 \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\] it is possible that BZP may also fall into this category. One in every 45 2. The drug was classified as a Schedule I controlled substance in the United States in , \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\[ 13 \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\] following a report by the DEA which incorrectly stated that BZP was 10 to 20 times more potent than amphetamine, \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\[ 38 \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\] when in fact BZP is ten times less potent than dexamphetamine. BZP is banned in all Australian states. Victoria, the last state in which it was legal, changed its classification on September 1 Both Australia and Japan admit that their scheduling decisions were made primarily in response to the Schedule 1 classification given to BZP in the USA, although some instances of BZP use had been reported by law enforcement authorities in both countries. Any products containing salts of piperazine would be licensable under the Medicines Act \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\[ 42 \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\] and consequently anyone manufacturing and supplying it legally must hold the relevant licenses to do so. BZP is not a salt of piperazine , but mislabelling of BZP products as containing 'piperazine blend' resulted in some prosecutions of suppliers in the UK by the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency, although none were successful. For now, BZP and other analogous piperazines are still legal and uncontrolled in several Western countries, most notoriously Canada. However, Canadian suppliers often decline foreign orders even if they originate from countries where BZP is not regulated. The largest supplier in Canada, Purepillz, currently states on its website that it will not ship BZP based products to The European Union due to a proposed ban in the E. New status may be pending following current assessment by Health Canada \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\[1\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\]. However, due to its high retail price in Canada BZP is rarely used by stimulant abusers who can obtain cheaper and stronger drugs on the illicit market and for the same reason few young people use it, and lukewarm media interest creates little pressure on authorities for regulation. This may delay any legislation project in the near future. BZP is not controlled under any UN convention yet, so the compounds themselves are legal throughout most of the world, although in most countries their use is restricted to pharmaceutical manufacturing and recreational use is unknown. The results were published in June A ban was intended to come into effect in New Zealand on December 18 , but the law change did not go through until the following year, and the sale of BZP and the other listed piperazines became illegal in New Zealand as of 1st of April An amnesty for possession and usage of these drugs was in effect until October , at which point they became completely illegal. Schedule I US Legal in some countries. Benzylpiperazine , commonly referred to as BZP is an recreational drug. It is also available with trade names such as 'A2', 'Frenzy' and 'Nemesis', \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\[2\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\] It is a stimulant and may cause Euphoria. People believe it works similar to MDMA. Side-effects include acute psychosis , problems with the kidneys Adverse effects have been reported following its use including acute psychosis and seizures. It does not appear to be very addictive and no deaths have been reported following taking BZP once. The European Union is currently changing its laws to regulate this substance more. The Full Wiki Search: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! See more info or our list of citable articles. Pharmacy and Pharmacology portal. New Zealand Medical Association. British Medical Journal 2 Eur J Clin Pharmacol 6 3: Bay of Plenty Times. N Z Med J Forensic Sci Int Ann N Y Acad Sci Pol J Pharmacol Pharm 39 2: J Med Chem 29 5: Drug Alcohol Depend 77 2: Clin Toxicol Phila 46 9: Case Series of 73 Poisonings \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\[abstract\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\]'. Disposition of Toxic Drugs and Chemicals in Man 8 ed. Dtsch Med Wochenschr Br J Anaesth 96 6: Drug Alcohol Depend 88 National Drug Intelligence Center. Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from July This short article can be made longer. You can help Wikipedia by adding to it. Retrieved from ' http: Drug pages needing a structure drawing Stubs Drugs. Lay off the party pills - NZMA. Got something to say? Your name Your email address Message. This content and its associated elements are made available under the same license where attribution must include acknowledgement of The Full Wiki as the source on the page same page with a link back to this page with no nofollow tag. Y what is this? Contents 1 History 1. See also Sympathomimetic amines. A joint report from Europol and the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction EMCDDA warns that the substance, benzylpiperazine , which is available from websites and 'head candy' shops, can cause a series of negative side-effects. The report says that due to its 'stimulant properties, risk to health and lack of medical benefits' benzylpiperazine , or BZP, should be a controlled substance. The pills contain a blend of the stimulant benzylpiperazine BZP and other less potent chemicals from the piperazine family.