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Cocaine , also known as coke , is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug. Cocaine is addictive due to its effect on the reward pathway in the brain. Cocaine acts by inhibiting the reuptake of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. After cannabis , cocaine is the most frequently used illegal drug globally. Topical cocaine can be used as a local numbing agent to help with painful procedures in the mouth or nose. Cocaine is now predominantly used for nasal and lacrimal duct surgery. Some ENT specialists occasionally use cocaine within the practice when performing procedures such as nasal cauterization. Even when used this way, some of the used cocaine may be absorbed through oral or nasal mucosa and give systemic effects. Cocaine is a powerful nervous system stimulant. When inhaled or injected, it causes a numbing effect. Crack cocaine is a smokeable form of cocaine made into small 'rocks' by processing cocaine with sodium bicarbonate baking soda and water. Cocaine use leads to increases in alertness, feelings of well-being and euphoria , increased energy and motor activity, and increased feelings of competence and sexuality. Many users rub the powder along the gum line, or onto a cigarette filter which is then smoked, which numbs the gums and teeth — hence the colloquial names of 'numbies', 'gummers', or 'cocoa puffs' for this type of administration. This is mostly done with the small amounts of cocaine remaining on a surface after insufflation snorting. Another oral method is to wrap up some cocaine in rolling paper and swallow parachute it. Coca leaves are typically mixed with an alkaline substance such as lime and chewed into a wad that is retained in the mouth between gum and cheek much the same as chewing tobacco is chewed and sucked of its juices. The juices are absorbed slowly by the mucous membrane of the inner cheek and by the gastrointestinal tract when swallowed. Alternatively, coca leaves can be infused in liquid and consumed like tea. Ingesting coca leaves generally is an inefficient means of administering cocaine. Because cocaine is hydrolyzed and rendered inactive in the acidic stomach, it is not readily absorbed when ingested alone. Only when mixed with a highly alkaline substance such as lime can it be absorbed into the bloodstream through the stomach. The efficiency of absorption of orally administered cocaine is limited by two additional factors. First, the drug is partly catabolized by the liver. Second, capillaries in the mouth and esophagus constrict after contact with the drug, reducing the surface area over which the drug can be absorbed. Nevertheless, cocaine metabolites can be detected in the urine of subjects that have sipped even one cup of coca leaf infusion. Contrary to popular belief, both ingestion and insufflation result in approximately the same proportion of the drug being absorbed: Compared to ingestion, the faster absorption of insufflated cocaine results in quicker attainment of maximum drug effects. Coca tea , an infusion of coca leaves, is also a traditional method of consumption. The tea has often been recommended for travelers in the Andes to prevent altitude sickness. One specific purpose of ancient coca leaf consumption was to increase energy and reduce fatigue in messengers who made multi-day quests to other settlements. The article stated that drinking two cups of the tea per day gave a mild stimulation , increased heart rate , and mood elevation, and the tea was essentially harmless. Despite this, the DEA seized several shipments in Hawaii , Chicago , Georgia , and several locations on the East Coast of the United States , and the product was removed from the shelves. Nasal insufflation known colloquially as 'snorting', 'sniffing', or 'blowing' is a common method of ingestion of recreational powdered cocaine. Any material not directly absorbed through the mucous membranes is collected in mucus and swallowed this 'drip' is considered pleasant by some and unpleasant by others. In a study of cocaine users, the average time taken to reach peak subjective effects was Nosebleeds after cocaine insufflation are due to irritation and damage of mucus membranes by foreign particles and adulterants and not the cocaine itself; \\\\\\\\\\\\\[ citation needed \\\\\\\\\\\\\] as a vasoconstrictor, cocaine acts to reduce bleeding. Rolled up banknotes , hollowed-out pens , cut straws , pointed ends of keys, specialized spoons, long fingernails , and clean tampon applicators are often used to insufflate cocaine. Such devices are often called 'tooters' by users. The cocaine typically is poured onto a flat, hard surface such as a mirror, CD case or book and divided into 'bumps', 'lines' or 'rails', and then insufflated. Drug injection by turning the drug into a solution provides the highest blood levels of drug in the shortest amount of time. This is colloquially referred to as a 'bell ringer'. In a study of cocaine users, the average time taken to reach peak subjective effects was 3. Aside from the toxic effects of cocaine, there is also danger of circulatory emboli from the insoluble substances that may be used to cut the drug. As with all injected illicit substances, there is a risk of the user contracting blood-borne infections if sterile injecting equipment is not available or used. Additionally, because cocaine is a vasoconstrictor, and usage often entails multiple injections within several hours or less, subsequent injections are progressively more difficult to administer, which in turn may lead to more injection attempts and more consequences from improperly performed injection. An injected mixture of cocaine and heroin , known as ' speedball ' is a particularly dangerous combination, as the converse effects of the drugs actually complement each other, but may also mask the symptoms of an overdose. Experimentally, cocaine injections can be delivered to animals such as fruit flies to study the mechanisms of cocaine addiction. Inhalation by smoking cocaine is one of the several ways the drug is consumed. Cocaine is smoked by inhaling the vapor produced when solid cocaine is heated to the point that it sublimates. Smoking freebase or crack cocaine is most often accomplished using a pipe made from a small glass tube, often taken from ' love roses ', small glass tubes with a paper rose that are promoted as romantic gifts. Crack smokers also sometimes smoke through a soda can with small holes on the side or bottom. Powdered cocaine is also sometimes smoked, though heat destroys much of the chemical; smokers often sprinkle it on cannabis. Another way users consume cocaine is by making it into a suppository which they then insert into the anus or vagina. The drug is then absorbed by the membranes of these body parts. Little research has been focused on the suppository anal or vaginal insertion method of administration, also known as 'plugging'. This method of administration is commonly administered using an oral syringe. Cocaine can be dissolved in water and withdrawn into an oral syringe which may then be lubricated and inserted into the anus or vagina before the plunger is pushed. Anecdotal evidence of its effects is infrequently discussed, possibly due to social taboos in many cultures. The rectum and the vaginal canal is where the majority of the drug would be taken up through the membranes lining its walls. With excessive or prolonged use, the drug can cause itching , fast heart rate , hallucinations , and paranoid delusions. Anxiety, paranoia , and restlessness can also occur, especially during the comedown. With excessive dosage, tremors, convulsions and increased body temperature are observed. Timeline of number of yearly U. Opioid involvement in cocaine overdose deaths. Red line represents the number of cocaine deaths that also involved opioids, and the purple line represents cocaine deaths that did not involve opioids. Delphic analysis regarding 20 popular recreational drugs based on expert opinion. Cocaine was ranked the 2nd in dependence and physical harm and 3rd in social harm. Chronic cocaine intake causes strong imbalances of transmitter levels in order to compensate extremes. However, studies suggest cocaine abusers do not show normal age-related loss of striatal dopamine transporter DAT sites, suggesting cocaine has neuroprotective properties for dopamine neurons. Depression with suicidal ideation may develop in very heavy users. Finally, a loss of vesicular monoamine transporters , neurofilament proteins, and other morphological changes appear to indicate a long term damage of dopamine neurons. All these effects contribute a rise in tolerance thus requiring a larger dosage to achieve the same effect. Physical withdrawal is not dangerous. Physiological changes caused by cocaine withdrawal include vivid and unpleasant dreams, insomnia or hypersomnia, increased appetite and psychomotor retardation or agitation. Physical side effects from chronic smoking of cocaine include coughing up blood , bronchospasm , itching , fever , diffuse alveolar infiltrates without effusions, pulmonary and systemic eosinophilia , chest pain, lung trauma, sore throat, asthma , hoarse voice, dyspnea shortness of breath , and an aching, flu -like syndrome. Cocaine constricts blood vessels , dilates pupils , and increases body temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure. It can also cause headaches and gastrointestinal complications such as abdominal pain and nausea. A common but untrue belief is that the smoking of cocaine chemically breaks down tooth enamel and causes tooth decay. However, cocaine does often cause involuntary tooth grinding, known as bruxism , which can deteriorate tooth enamel and lead to gingivitis. Cocaine use also promotes the formation of blood clots. Chronic intranasal usage can degrade the cartilage separating the nostrils the septum nasi , leading eventually to its complete disappearance. Due to the absorption of the cocaine from cocaine hydrochloride, the remaining hydrochloride forms a dilute hydrochloric acid. Cocaine may also greatly increase this risk of developing rare autoimmune or connective tissue diseases such as lupus , Goodpasture syndrome , vasculitis , glomerulonephritis , Stevens—Johnson syndrome , and other diseases. Cocaine use leads to an increased risk of hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes. This change can be identified rather quickly, and may be sustained weeks after the last dose of the drug. Cocaine dependence is a form of psychological dependence that develops from regular cocaine use and produces a withdrawal state with emotional-motivational deficits upon cessation of cocaine use. Cocaine is known to have a number of deleterious effects during pregnancy. Pregnant people who use cocaine have an elevated risk of placental abruption , a condition where the placenta detaches from the uterus and causes bleeding. Cocaine is also teratogenic, meaning that it can cause birth defects and fetal malformations. In-utero exposure to cocaine is associated with behavioral abnormalities, cognitive impairment, cardiovascular malformations, intrauterine growth restriction , preterm birth, urinary tract malformations, and cleft lip and palate. The pharmacodynamics of cocaine involve the complex relationships of neurotransmitters inhibiting monoamine uptake in rats with ratios of about: Dopamine transmitter released during neural signaling is normally recycled via the transporter; i. The dopamine transporter can no longer perform its reuptake function, and thus dopamine accumulates in the synaptic cleft. The overabundance of 5-HT3 receptors in cocaine conditioned rats display this trait, however the exact effect of 5-HT3 in this process is unclear. Cocaine has been demonstrated to bind as to directly stabilize the DAT transporter on the open outward-facing conformation. Further, cocaine binds in such a way as to inhibit a hydrogen bond innate to DAT. Research studies have suggested that the affinity for the transporter is not what is involved in habituation of the substance so much as the conformation and binding properties to where and how on the transporter the molecule binds. Sigma receptors are affected by cocaine, as cocaine functions as a sigma ligand agonist. Cocaine also blocks sodium channels , thereby interfering with the propagation of action potentials ; \\\\\\\\\\\\\[39\\\\\\\\\\\\\] thus, like lignocaine and novocaine , it acts as a local anesthetic. It also functions on the binding sites to the dopamine and serotonin sodium dependent transport area as targets as separate mechanisms from its reuptake of those transporters; unique to its local anesthetic value which makes it in a class of functionality different from both its own derived phenyltropanes analogues which have that removed. In addition to this cocaine has some target binding to the site of the Kappa-opioid receptor as well. The locomotor enhancing properties of cocaine may be attributable to its enhancement of dopaminergic transmission from the substantia nigra. Recent research points to an important role of circadian mechanisms \\\\\\\\\\\\\[66\\\\\\\\\\\\\] and clock genes \\\\\\\\\\\\\[67\\\\\\\\\\\\\] in behavioral actions of cocaine. Cocaine can often cause reduced food intake, many chronic users lose their appetite and can experience severe malnutrition and significant weight loss. Cocaine effects, further, are shown to be potentiated for the user when used in conjunction with new surroundings and stimuli, and otherwise novel environs. Cocaine has a short half life of 0. Depending on liver and kidney function, cocaine metabolites are detectable in urine. Detection of accumulation of cocaine metabolites in hair is possible in regular users until the sections of hair grown during use are cut or fall out. Cocaine in its purest form is a white, pearly product. Cocaine appearing in powder form is a salt , typically cocaine hydrochloride. Street cocaine is often adulterated or 'cut' with talc , lactose , sucrose , glucose , mannitol , inositol , caffeine , procaine , phencyclidine , phenytoin , lignocaine , strychnine , amphetamine , or heroin. The color of 'crack' cocaine depends upon several factors including the origin of the cocaine used, the method of preparation — with ammonia or baking soda — and the presence of impurities, but will generally range from white to a yellowish cream to a light brown. Its texture will also depend on the adulterants, origin and processing of the powdered cocaine, and the method of converting the base. It ranges from a crumbly texture, sometimes extremely oily, to a hard, almost crystalline nature. Cocaine — a tropane alkaloid — is a weakly alkaline compound, and can therefore combine with acidic compounds to form various salts. The hydrochloride HCl salt of cocaine is by far the most commonly encountered, although the sulfate -SO 4 and the nitrate -NO 3 are occasionally seen. Different salts dissolve to a greater or lesser extent in various solvents — the hydrochloride salt is polar in character and is quite soluble in water. As the name implies, 'freebase' is the base form of cocaine, as opposed to the salt form. It is practically insoluble in water whereas hydrochloride salt is water-soluble. Pure cocaine is prepared by neutralizing its compounding salt with an alkaline solution, which will precipitate to non-polar basic cocaine. It is further refined through aqueous-solvent liquid—liquid extraction. The 'freebase' and 'crack' forms of cocaine are usually administered by vaporization of the powdered substance into smoke, which is then inhaled. The origin of the name 'crack' comes from the 'crackling' sound and hence the onomatopoeic moniker 'crack' that is produced when the cocaine and its impurities i. This effectively destroys some of the cocaine and yields a sharp, acrid, and foul-tasting smoke. Smoking or vaporizing cocaine and inhaling it into the lungs produces an almost immediate 'high' that can be very powerful and addicting quite rapidly — this initial crescendo of stimulation is known as a 'rush'. While the stimulating effects may last for hours, the euphoric sensation is very brief, prompting the user to smoke more immediately. Coca herbal infusion also referred to as coca tea is used in coca-leaf producing countries much as any herbal medicinal infusion would elsewhere in the world. The free and legal commercialization of dried coca leaves under the form of filtration bags to be used as 'coca tea' has been actively promoted by the governments of Peru and Bolivia for many years as a drink having medicinal powers. Visitors to the city of Cuzco in Peru, and La Paz in Bolivia are greeted with the offering of coca leaf infusions prepared in teapots with whole coca leaves purportedly to help the newly arrived traveler overcome the malaise of high altitude sickness. The effects of drinking coca tea are a mild stimulation and mood lift. It does not produce any significant numbing of the mouth nor does it give a rush like snorting cocaine. In order to prevent the demonization of this product, its promoters publicize the unproven concept that much of the effect of the ingestion of coca leaf infusion would come from the secondary alkaloids, as being not only quantitatively different from pure cocaine but also qualitatively different. It has been promoted as an adjuvant for the treatment of cocaine dependence. In one controversial study, coca leaf infusion was used—in addition to counseling—to treat 23 addicted coca-paste smokers in Lima , Peru. Relapses fell from an average of four times per month before treatment with coca tea to one during the treatment. These results suggest that the administration of coca leaf infusion plus counseling would be an effective method for preventing relapse during treatment for cocaine addiction. Importantly, these results also suggest strongly that the primary pharmacologically active metabolite in coca leaf infusions is actually cocaine and not the secondary alkaloids. The cocaine metabolite benzoylecgonine can be detected in the urine of people a few hours after drinking one cup of coca leaf infusion. Since then, Robert Robinson and Edward Leete have made significant contributions to the mechanism of the synthesis. The second addition occurs through a Claisen condensation. This produces a racemic mixture of the 2-substituted pyrrolidine, with the retention of the thioester from the Claisen condensation. In formation of tropinone from racemic ethyl \\\\\\\\\\\\\[2,C 2 \\\\\\\\\\\\\] 4 Nmethylpyrrolidinyl oxobutanoate there is no preference for either stereoisomer. The stereoselectivity of this reaction was further investigated through study of prochiral methylene hydrogen discrimination. The benzoyl moiety required for the formation of the cocaine diester is synthesized from phenylalanine via cinnamic acid. The biosynthesis begins with L- Glutamine , which is derived to L- ornithine in plants. The major contribution of L-ornithine and L- arginine as a precursor to the tropane ring was confirmed by Edward Leete. In animals, however, the urea cycle derives putrescine from ornithine. L-ornithine is converted to L-arginine, \\\\\\\\\\\\\[85\\\\\\\\\\\\\] which is then decarboxylated via PLP to form agmatine. Hydrolysis of the imine derives N -carbamoylputrescine followed with hydrolysis of the urea to form putrescine. The separate pathways of converting ornithine to putrescine in plants and animals have converged. A SAM-dependent N -methylation of putrescine gives the N -methylputrescine product, which then undergoes oxidative deamination by the action of diamine oxidase to yield the aminoaldehyde. The biosynthesis of the tropane alkaloid , however, is still uncertain. Decarboxylation leads to tropane alkaloid formation. The reduction of tropinone is mediated by NADPH -dependent reductase enzymes, which have been characterized in multiple plant species. Cocaine and its major metabolites may be quantified in blood, plasma, or urine to monitor for abuse, confirm a diagnosis of poisoning, or assist in the forensic investigation of a traffic or other criminal violation or a sudden death. Most commercial cocaine immunoassay screening tests cross-react appreciably with the major cocaine metabolites, but chromatographic techniques can easily distinguish and separately measure each of these substances. When interpreting the results of a test, it is important to consider the cocaine usage history of the individual, since a chronic user can develop tolerance to doses that would incapacitate a cocaine-naive individual, and the chronic user often has high baseline values of the metabolites in his system. Cautious interpretation of testing results may allow a distinction between passive or active usage, and between smoking versus other routes of administration. Similar claims have been made in web forums on that topic. According to a United Nations report, England and Wales are the countries with the highest rate of cocaine usage 2. Cocaine is the second most popular illegal recreational drug in Europe behind cannabis. Since the mids, overall cocaine usage in Europe has been on the rise, but usage rates and attitudes tend to vary between countries. Approximately 12 million Europeans 3. Usage is particularly prevalent among this demographic: The ratio of male to female users is approximately 3. In London had the highest amount of cocaine in its sewage out of 50 European cities. Cocaine is the second most popular illegal recreational drug in the United States behind cannabis \\\\\\\\\\\\\[95\\\\\\\\\\\\\] and the U. It is also popular amongst college students, as a party drug. A study throughout the entire United States has reported that around 48 percent of people who graduated high school in have used cocaine recreationally during some point in their lifetime, compared to approximately 20 percent of students who graduated between the years of and In the s and s, the drug became particularly popular in the disco culture as cocaine usage was very common and popular in many discos such as Studio For over a thousand years South American indigenous peoples have chewed the leaves of Erythroxylon coca , a plant that contains vital nutrients as well as numerous alkaloids , including cocaine. The coca leaf was, and still is, chewed almost universally by some indigenous communities. The remains of coca leaves have been found with ancient Peruvian mummies, and pottery from the time period depicts humans with bulged cheeks, indicating the presence of something on which they are chewing. When the Spanish arrived in South America , most at first ignored aboriginal claims that the leaf gave them strength and energy, and declared the practice of chewing it the work of the Devil. When they wished to make themselves drunk and out of judgment they chewed a mixture of tobacco and coca leaves which make them go as they were out of their wittes. In , Padre Blas Valera wrote:. Coca protects the body from many ailments, and our doctors use it in powdered form to reduce the swelling of wounds, to strengthen broken bones, to expel cold from the body or prevent it from entering, and to cure rotten wounds or sores that are full of maggots. And if it does so much for outward ailments, will not its singular virtue have even greater effect in the entrails of those who eat it? Although the stimulant and hunger-suppressant properties of coca had been known for many centuries, the isolation of the cocaine alkaloid was not achieved until Various European scientists had attempted to isolate cocaine, but none had been successful for two reasons: The cocaine alkaloid was first isolated by the German chemist Friedrich Gaedcke in Gaedcke named the alkaloid 'erythroxyline', and published a description in the journal Archiv der Pharmazie. Carl Scherzer , a scientist aboard the Novara an Austrian frigate sent by Emperor Franz Joseph to circle the globe , to bring him a large amount of coca leaves from South America. With the discovery of this new alkaloid, Western medicine was quick to exploit the possible uses of this plant. He prepared two separate jars, one containing a cocaine-salt solution, with the other containing merely salt water. The leg that had been immersed in the cocaine solution reacted very differently from the leg that had been immersed in salt water. Karl Koller a close associate of Sigmund Freud , who would write about cocaine later experimented with cocaine for ophthalmic usage. In an infamous experiment in , he experimented upon himself by applying a cocaine solution to his own eye and then pricking it with pins. His findings were presented to the Heidelberg Ophthalmological Society. Also in , Jellinek demonstrated the effects of cocaine as a respiratory system anesthetic. In , William Halsted demonstrated nerve-block anesthesia, \\\\\\\\\\\\\[\\\\\\\\\\\\\] and James Leonard Corning demonstrated peridural anesthesia. Today, cocaine has a very limited medical use. In , an Italian doctor , Paolo Mantegazza , returned from Peru , where he had witnessed first-hand the use of coca by the local indigenous peoples. He proceeded to experiment on himself and upon his return to Milan he wrote a paper in which he described the effects. In this paper he declared coca and cocaine at the time they were assumed to be the same as being useful medicinally, in the treatment of 'a furred tongue in the morning, flatulence , and whitening of the teeth. In , Mariani started marketing a wine called Vin Mariani , which had been treated with coca leaves, to become cocawine. In cocaine began to be used to treat morphine addiction. Exhilaration and lasting euphoria, which in no way differs from the normal euphoria of the healthy person. You perceive an increase of self-control and possess more vitality and capacity for work. In other words, you are simply normal, and it is soon hard to believe you are under the influence of any drug. Long intensive physical work is performed without any fatigue. This result is enjoyed without any of the unpleasant after-effects that follow exhilaration brought about by alcoholic beverages. No craving for the further use of cocaine appears after the first, or even after repeated taking of the drug. In the U. The company promised that its cocaine products would 'supply the place of food, make the coward brave, the silent eloquent and render the sufferer insensitive to pain. By the late Victorian era , cocaine use had appeared as a vice in literature. In early 20th-century Memphis, Tennessee , cocaine was sold in neighborhood drugstores on Beale Street , costing five or ten cents for a small boxful. Stevedores along the Mississippi River used the drug as a stimulant, and white employers encouraged its use by black laborers. In modern popular culture references to the drug are prevalent, in it the drug has a glamorous image associated with the rich, famous and powerful with it also making users to 'feel rich and beautiful'. In many countries, cocaine is a popular recreational drug. In the United States, the development of 'crack' cocaine introduced the substance to a generally poorer inner-city market. Use of the powder form has stayed relatively constant, experiencing a new height of use during the late s and early s in the U. Cocaine use is prevalent across all socioeconomic strata, including age, demographics, economic, social, political, religious, and livelihood. However, a decision by an American representative in the World Health Assembly banned the publication of the study, because it seemed to make a case for the positive uses of cocaine. An excerpt of the report strongly conflicted with accepted paradigms, for example 'that occasional cocaine use does not typically lead to severe or even minor physical or social problems. This led to the decision to discontinue publication. A part of the study was recuperated and published in , including profiles of cocaine use in 20 countries, but are unavailable as of \\\\\\\\\\\\\[update\\\\\\\\\\\\\]. In October it was reported that the use of cocaine in Australia has doubled since monitoring began in A problem with illegal cocaine use, especially in the higher volumes used to combat fatigue rather than increase euphoria by long-term users, is the risk of ill effects or damage caused by the compounds used in adulteration. The production, distribution, and sale of cocaine products is restricted and illegal in most contexts in most countries as regulated by the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs , and the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances. In the United States the manufacture, importation, possession, and distribution of cocaine are additionally regulated by the Controlled Substances Act. Some countries, such as Peru and Bolivia permit the cultivation of coca leaf for traditional consumption by the local indigenous population , but nevertheless, prohibit the production, sale, and consumption of cocaine. The US federal government instituted a national labeling requirement for cocaine and cocaine-containing products through the Pure Food and Drug Act of While this act is often seen as the start of prohibition, the act itself was not actually a prohibition on cocaine, but instead set up a regulatory and licensing regime. In , according to the United Nations , tonnes of cocaine were seized globally by law enforcement authorities. Demand remains high, and consequently, black market cocaine is quite expensive. Unprocessed cocaine, such as coca leaves , are occasionally purchased and sold, but this is exceedingly rare as it is much easier and more profitable to conceal and smuggle it in powdered form. The scale of the market is immense: This, combined with crop reductions in Bolivia and Peru, made Colombia the nation with the largest area of coca under cultivation after the mids. Coca is grown for traditional purposes by indigenous communities, a use which is still present and is permitted by Colombian laws only makes up a small fragment of total coca production, most of which is used for the illegal drug trade. An interview with a coca farmer published in described a mode of production by acid-base extraction that has changed little since The leaves were dried for half a day, then chopped into small pieces with a string trimmer and sprinkled with a small amount of powdered cement replacing sodium carbonate from former times. Once powdered caustic soda was added to this, the cocaine precipitated and could be removed by filtration through a cloth. The resulting material, when dried, was termed pasta and sold by the farmer. Repeated recrystallization from solvents, producing pasta lavada and eventually crystalline cocaine were performed at specialized laboratories after the sale. Attempts to eradicate coca fields through the use of defoliants have devastated part of the farming economy in some coca growing regions of Colombia, and strains appear to have been developed that are more resistant or immune to their use. Whether these strains are natural mutations or the product of human tampering is unclear. These strains have also shown to be more potent than those previously grown, increasing profits for the drug cartels responsible for the exporting of cocaine. Although production fell temporarily, coca crops rebounded in numerous smaller fields in Colombia, rather than the larger plantations. The cultivation of coca has become an attractive economic decision for many growers due to the combination of several factors, including the lack of other employment alternatives, the lower profitability of alternative crops in official crop substitution programs, the eradication-related damages to non-drug farms, the spread of new strains of the coca plant due to persistent worldwide demand. The latest estimate provided by the U. As of the end of , the seizure operations of Colombian cocaine carried out in different countries have totaled Synthetic cocaine would be highly desirable to the illegal drug industry as it would eliminate the high visibility and low reliability of offshore sources and international smuggling, replacing them with clandestine domestic laboratories, as are common for illicit methamphetamine. However, natural cocaine remains the lowest cost and highest quality supply of cocaine. Actual full synthesis of cocaine is rarely done. Formation of inactive enantiomers cocaine has 4 chiral centres — 1R , 2R , 3S , and 5S — hence a total potential of 16 possible enantiomers and diastereoisomers plus synthetic by-products limits the yield and purity. Organized criminal gangs operating on a large scale dominate the cocaine trade. As of \\\\\\\\\\\\\[update\\\\\\\\\\\\\] , cocaine shipments from South America transported through Mexico or Central America were generally moved over land or by air to staging sites in northern Mexico. The cocaine is then broken down into smaller loads for smuggling across the U. The primary cocaine importation points in the United States have been in Arizona , southern California , southern Florida , and Texas. Typically, land vehicles are driven across the U. Sixty-five percent of cocaine enters the United States through Mexico, and the vast majority of the rest enters through Florida. Cocaine traffickers from Colombia and Mexico have established a labyrinth of smuggling routes throughout the Caribbean, the Bahama Island chain, and South Florida. They often hire traffickers from Mexico or the Dominican Republic to transport the drug using a variety of smuggling techniques to U. Another route of cocaine traffic goes through Chile, which is primarily used for cocaine produced in Bolivia since the nearest seaports lie in northern Chile. While the price of cocaine is higher in Chile than in Peru and Bolivia, the final destination is usually Europe, especially Spain where drug dealing networks exist among South American immigrants. Cocaine is also carried in small, concealed, kilogram quantities across the border by couriers known as ' mules ' or 'mulas' , who cross a border either legally, for example, through a port or airport, or illegally elsewhere. The drugs may be strapped to the waist or legs or hidden in bags, or hidden in the body. If the mule gets through without being caught, the gangs will reap most of the profits. If he or she is caught, however, gangs will sever all links and the mule will usually stand trial for trafficking alone. Bulk cargo ships are also used to smuggle cocaine to staging sites in the western Caribbean— Gulf of Mexico area. Commercial fishing vessels are also used for smuggling operations. In areas with a high volume of recreational traffic, smugglers use the same types of vessels, such as go-fast boats , as those used by the local populations. Sophisticated drug subs are the latest tool drug runners are using to bring cocaine north from Colombia, it was reported on 20 March Although the vessels were once viewed as a quirky sideshow in the drug war, they are becoming faster, more seaworthy, and capable of carrying bigger loads of drugs than earlier models, according to those charged with catching them. According to the Summer Pulse Check , published by the U. In addition to the amounts previously mentioned, cocaine can be sold in 'bill sizes': Twenty dollars might purchase 0. However, in lower Texas, it is sold cheaper due to it being easier to receive: Quality and price can vary dramatically depending on supply and demand, and on geographic region. Between and , the value of the market remained basically stable'. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Cocaine disambiguation. C Risk not ruled out. CNS stimulant Local anesthetic. Schedule II \\\\\\\\\\\\\[4\\\\\\\\\\\\\] UN: This article needs more medical references for verification or relies too heavily on primary sources. Please review the contents of the article and add the appropriate references if you can. Unsourced or poorly sourced material may be challenged and removed. Epigenetics of cocaine addiction. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. 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Abuse Date rape drug Impaired driving Drug harmfulness Effects of cannabis Addiction Dependence Prevention Opioid replacement therapy Rehabilitation Responsible use Drug-related crime Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder Long-term effects of cannabis Neurotoxicity Overdose Passive smoking of tobacco or other substances. Alcohol legality Alcohol consumption Anabolic steroid legality Cannabis legality Annual use Lifetime use Cigarette consumption Cocaine legality Cocaine use Methamphetamine legality Opiates use Psilocybin mushrooms legality Salvia legality. Adapromine Amantadine Bromantane Memantine Rimantadine. Oxiracetam Phenylpiracetam Phenylpiracetam hydrazide. Local anesthetics primarily sodium channel blockers N01B. Amoproxan 3,4,5-Trimethoxybenzoyl 3- p-Fluorobenzoyloxy tropane. KCNQ K v 7 -specific: Ranolazine Antiarrhythmics class I: Buprenorphine Evenamide Menthol mint Safinamide Tricyclic antidepressants. Selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors: Amoxapine Maprotiline Mianserin Oxaprotiline Setiptiline. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: A Amoxapine Antihistamines e. Retrieved from ' https: Cocaine Tropane alkaloids found in Erythroxylum coca Alkaloids found in Erythroxylum Anorectics Benzoates Cardiac stimulants Euphoriants Local anesthetics Otologicals Serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors Sigma agonists Stimulants Sympathomimetic amines Teratogens Vasoconstrictors German inventions Carboxylate esters Methyl esters Glycine receptor agonists Secondary metabolites. Webarchive template wayback links CS1 maint: Views Read View source View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons Wikiquote. This page was last edited on 21 June , at By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Micromedex Detailed Consumer Information. Topical , oral , insufflation , intravenous. Wikiquote has quotations related to: Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cocaine. Look up cocaine in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Blockers K ATP -specific: Blockers BK Ca -specific: Blockers Amiloride Benzamil Triamterene. Blockers Glibenclamide Lonidamine Piretanide. TRPs See here instead.

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