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Gerald Lindermans Embattled Courage (1987) is an outstanding study of the motivation of soldiers during the American Civil War and of the values of the society to which they responded.The book is in two broad sections. The first part of the book, titled Courages War covers the early years of the war to about mid-1863 (the time of the climactic Union victories at Gettysburg and Vicksburg). During these years, Linderman sees the primary motivating factor of the war as courage and of individual effort. The soldier enlisting in the war effort -- and during the early years volunteers bore the overwhelming brunt of the effort- had concepts of personal bravery in the face of danger, fearlessness and commitment to duty and to a purpose. He believed that the actions of an individual mattered and could make a difference to the result of a battle. This was an idealistic concept and Linderman shows well how it was reinforced and complemented by concepts of manliness, comradeship, godliness and morality, chivalry, and the brotherhood of soldiers, which assumes a certain degree of respect for the enemy on the other side of the line. Linderman points out that the Civil War may have been the last conflict in which these ideals were taken seriously. They were dashed in WW I, and in the later phases of the Civil War itself.The second part of the book, titled A Perilous Education shows how the initial idealism underlying the soldiers war effort became hardened and tarnished with the stark reality of combat. The concept of courage didnt disappear but it changed and the soldiers became tougher and more realistic. On occasion cynicism and disillusion set in. The factors leading to this change in perspective were the horrors and deaths on the battlefield, resulting largely from the increased range of Civil War weaponry which helped make the traditional offensive charge (as at Fredericksburg, Gettysburg, and Cold Harbor) ineffective and death-dealing to the aggressor. Other factors include the crude Civil War hospitals, with blood and amputation on every side, the long forced marches, the toll of disease in the camps, which led to twice as many deaths as did combat, the boredom of camp life, imprisonment in camps such as Andersonville, the lengthy character of the war, the conflict between volunteers and draftees, and the lack of food and supplies which led soldiers to forage from civilians and to strip valuables and clothes from the bodies of dead comrades and enemies. The civil war became a total, brutal war in the final two years. Stonewall Jackson early in the war, and Grant and Sherman subsequently, understood the total nature of the effort that was required to pursue this war.The idealism with which the volunteers entered the war and their concept of individual effort changed radically when faced with the harshness of the war. This changed their understanding of themselves, the war effort, and their relationship to the civilian population.There is a lengthy epilogue to the book which discusses the fate of the concept of courage following the war and how it evolved through the end of the 19th century. Broadly speaking, a certain nostalgia set in beginning in the 1880s when the original ideals of courage revived in memory and the hardships of the war effort receded.Lindermans book is well documented with contemporaneous accounts from the soldiers and with subsequent memoirs. It taught me a great deal about motivation in combat and how it changes with experience. Those interested in pursuing the subject further might be interested in James McPhersons For Cause and Comrades, which takes issue with Linderman on certain points, and in David Blights Race and Reunion. The latter book develops the theme sketched in Lindermans epilogue by showing the effects of time on how people in the United States perceived the conflict of 1861 - 1865.Robin Friedman
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